1 . Phonetics as being a branch of linguistics. Phonetics and other disciplines. Applying phonetics. Ph-s is a fundamental branch of linguistics that studies the products on hand, structure and functions of the speech sounds. Ph-s research the phonemes and their allophones, the syllabic structure, the distribution of stress, intonation and the ways they are arranged. Ph-s investigates into a approach to units plus the variation of the units in all of the types and fashions of voiced language. Some disciplines like lexicology and grammar should not function with out ph-s.
Ph-s is connected with physics mathematics, statistics, physiology, anatomy, anthropology, history, archaeology.
2.Branches of phonetics. Articulatory ph-s is the study of the way the vocal organs are used to produce speech sounds. Acoustic ph-s is the study of the physical properties of speech sounds. Auditory ph-s is the study of the way people perceive speech sounds. Phonology ” the functional (linguistic) aspect of speech sounds. Ph-s divided: general (special) and ph-s of particular language (descriptive). Historical ph-s traces the changes in the phonetic system of a language.
Ph-s can be: theoretical (studies the material form of sounds) and practical (studies the functioning of phonetic units in language). All the branches of ph-s are closely connected with one another and with other branches of linguistics.
3.Aspects of the sound matter of language. Sound aspects: a) the articulatory aspect (the movements and positions of the speech organs, power, vibration, resonator, obstruction mechanism). b) the acoustic aspect (sound waves ” vocal cords>tone, overtones, harmonics, fundamental frequency>pitch of voice, amplitude>intensity); c) the auditory (perceptive) aspect (physiological mechanism (ear>brain), psychological mechanism (to remember phonetic similarities)); d) the functional (linguistic) aspect (phonemes, syllables, stress, and intonation>meaningful units (morphemes, words, utterances).
4.Components of the phonetic system of language. The basic component ” phonemic ” the system of ph-mes (E in form of their alloph.), 3 asp.: the system of ph-mes as isolated units; the distribution of the alloph. of theph-mes; the methods of joining speech sounds together in words. The second component ” the syllabic structure of words, 2 inseparable asp. ” syllable formation and syllable division. The third component is the accentual structure of words as pronounced in isolation (3 asp.: the acoustic nature of word accent; the position of the accent in words; the degrees of word accent). The fourth component of the phonetic system is the intonational structure of utterances. Phonemic, syllabic, accentual and intonational components of the ph-c system of language constitute its pronunciation.
5.National and regional pronunciation variants in English. Unlike written, spoken language varies from place to place. Such distinct forms of lang. are called dialects. The language is varied between language communities (from small groups to nations). National lang. is a historical category created by conditions of economic and political situation which characterizes the nation. In English E a great diversity in the realization of the lang. (particularly the pronunc.) Every national variant of English has considerable differences in pronunc., vocabulary and grammar, but they all have much in common. Every national variety of lang. falls into territorial or regional dialects. Dialects ” differences in pronunciation (accents), grammar and vocabulary. 1 of the dialects becomes the standard lang. of the nation and its pronunciation or accent ” the standard pronunciation (sometimes called “an orthoepic norm or “literary pronunciation).
6.British and American pronunciation models ” 2 main types of Eng spoken nowadays. A pronunciation model is a carefully chosen and defined accent of a language. English-based group: English, Welsh, Australian, New Zealand English. American-based group: United States English, Canadian English. Scottish and Ireland English fall somewhere between eng-based and amer-based grps. Some scientists insist that English, Welsh, Scottish and Ireland eng. should be combined into British subgrp. (by political, geograph. and cultural similarities). Daniel Jones, English Pronouncing Dictionary(1917): PSP>RP(“king’s lang., 1926)>BBC(2003-16th ed. ) No dialect is a north american standard, but Networking English is the best be named as such.
7. Most exclusive features of BBC English and Network English. Ð’Ð’Ð¡ Englishis the pronunc. of specialist speakers utilized by the LABELLISÉ BASSE CONSOMMATION. Stability of artic. Horiz. and vertic. movement with the tongue, combinative pronounc., size are distinctive in BBS eng. Consonants: (de)voicing, lack of [h] in rapid conversation, initial “hw (some enunciate weakened), loss of final [Å‹], glottal stop, palatalized final [k’]. The best variant of GA can be Network English. Vowels: not any long-short difference; some diphthongs ” since biphonic combin-s; some diphthongs are totally diff.; 2 to 3 pronounce [r] between vow. and disadvantages. (or silence); nasalization (when followed by sinus cons. ); cons-ts: [l] has no alloph.; low syndication betw. [t] and [d] ([t] may possibly drop out); diff. articul. of [r]; “whw; [j] is normally weakened.
eight. The articulatory classification of English vowels. Daniel Jones, cardinal vowel system. Classific. criteria: stability of artic., tongue pos., lip detras., character of vow. end, length, tenseness. Roundedness (labialization). Nasalization. 3 grps: monophthongs, diphthongs, diphthongoids. Height (vertical): 1)close 2)mid 3)open (all narrow-broad).
Backness (horizontal): the front, front retracted, central, back again, back advanced.
9. The articulatory category of English consonants. Occlusive=complete obstruction. Constrictive=incomplete obstr. Occ-constr=affricates. Type of obstruction, place of articulation and energetic organ of speech, push of connection ” relevant artic. features. Degree of sound: 1)noise cons. (occlusive, constrictive, occlusive-constrictive); 2)sonorants (occlusive, occlusive-constrictive (lateral, medial)
Place of articulation: 1)labial (bilabial, labio-dental); 2)lingual (forelingual, mediolingual, backlingual); 3)glottal.
10. Phoneme as many-sided dialectic unity of language. Types of allophones. Exclusive and irrelevant features of the phoneme. Phoneme is used to mean “sound in its contrastive sense; homographe is used pertaining to variants of the phoneme. Shcherba(rus): the phoneme is a little abstract dialect unit noticed in presentation in the form of conversation sounds opposable to various other phonemes of the identical language to tell apart the meaning of morphemes and words. Material asp. ” the understanding of the ph-me in the forms of its alloph-s (principal, nearest to the ph-me, or subsidiary). Abstract asp. ” the generalization of a ph-me with a native audio. The invariant of the phoneme ” a bundle of distinctive articulatory features possessed simply by allophones. Useful asp. ” to distinguish one particular morpheme, word or utterance from another. The invariant is formed by the articulatory features (relevant(labialization) or irrelevant(aspiration)). 10. Main phonological schools.
People of Moscow phonological college (Reformatsky, Sidorov, etc) say that two several ph-mes in different allomorphs of the identical morpheme might be represented within the synchronic level by 1 and the same sound, which can be their prevalent variant and, consequently, a single and the same sound might belong to one particular ph-me more simply and to one more ph-me in another word. The 2nd, Leningrad phonological school (Shcherba, Zinder, etc), claim that distinct allomorphs varies in the two allophonic and phonemic formula. According to this school, conversation sounds within a phonologically fairly neutral position are part of that phoneme with in whose principal version they entirely or almost coincide. Acc. to the third school (Prague Linguistic Circle, Trubetzkoy, Jacobson) there can be found types of phonemes higher than the unit phoneme (the archiphoneme ” a combination of distinctive features common to two phonemes).
12. The system of vowel phonemes in English language. Problem of diphthongs. 20 vowels: [i:, a:, o:, u:, Ð·:, my spouse and i, e, Ã¦, Ïƒ, Ï…, Ð», É™; ei, ai, oi, Ð°Ï…, eÏ…, Ï…É™, iÉ™]. The classification is based on distinctive oppositions: 1)Stability of artic-n (monophthongs vs . diphthongs; diphthongs versus diphthongoids). 2)Pos. of the tongue (horizontal (front ” central, back ” central); vertical (close ” mid-open, open ” mid-open). 3)Pos. of lips ((un)rounded). Diphthongs ” 3 outl.: 1 def. is as in a diphthong only one component serves as a syllabic center, a diphthong is a solitary sound. a couple of def. of the diphthong being a single audio is based on the instability from the second aspect. The 3rd is usually since only one element is accented plus the other is definitely unaccented, a diphthong can be described as single sound. Problem of length: the difference between short and extended vowels is not only quantitative although also qualitative (different positions of the bulk of the tongue). Qualitative difference is the main relevant feature that serves to differentiate very long and short vowel ph-mes because quantitative characteristics of long vowels depend on the position theyoccupy all in all: a) these are the longest inside the terminal location; b) they are really shorter ahead of voiced consonants; c) they are the shortest ahead of voiceless consonants.
13. The device of consonant phonemes in English. Problem of affricates. 24 cons-ts: [p, b, to, d, t, g, f, v, Î¸, Ã°, s i9000, z, «, 3, they would, t«, d3, m, d, Å‹, w, r, one particular, j]. The classification is based on distinctive oppositions: 1)Degree of noise. 2)Place of articul. (labial vs . lingual, lingual vs . glottal). 3)Manner of articul. (occlus. vs . tighten., constrict. versus affricates, shrink. unicentral or bicentral). 4)vocal cords job + the force of articul. (voiceless fortis or voiced lenis). 5)Pos. from the soft palate (oral vs . nasal). The problem of affricates ” their phonological status and their number. Queen: are [t«, d3] monophonemic sounds or biphonemic comb-s (clusters)? If monoph. -c then are [tr, dr] and [tÎ¸, dÃ°] ” affricates? Rus. phoneticians look at the func. part of ph-mes, the most important one. Monoph-c def.: a) its elements belong to the same syllable b) it is manufactured by one articulatory effort c) its duration should not exceed normal duration of elements. United kingdom ph-cians apply syllabic invisibility, articulatory invis. and timeframe criteria to [t«, dÐ¶], [ts, dz], [tr, dr], [tÎ¸, tÃ°] and say, that they can all are affricates. But Russian scien-s check out them via morph-cal and phon-cal pov and determine that only [t«, dÐ¶] happen to be monophonemic, yet others ” biphonemic complexes.
18. Modifications of English consonants and vowels in talk. Isolated pronunc. ” several stages: 1)initial st . (on-glide); 2)medial st . (retention); 3)final st . (off-glide, release). 2 ways of linking speech appears: I-Merging of stages. II-Interpretation of stages. We may sign up for: a)cons + vowel (C+V) [mi: ]. b)V + C [Ïƒn]. c)C+C[blÉ™Ï…] hit. d)V+V [riÃ¦lÉ™ti] reality. We is simpler method. II usually when downsides. of a comparable or identical nature are joined. Changes types: assimilation (adaptive modification of a C by a adjoining C), holiday accommodation (denoting the interchanges of VC or perhaps CV types), reduction (qualitative or quantitative weakening of vowels in unstressed pos), elision (a complete lack of sounds), and inserting (a process of appear addition). C: Assimil.: place/manner of artic. /work of voc. cords/degree of noises. Accomodation(lip pos. ). Elision: loss of [h] inperson. and possessive pronouns (have)/loss of [l] in the event that preceded by simply [o: ](always). Insrtion: linking [r] (car owner)/intrusive [r] ” really pronounced in which not spelled (china and glass). V: reduction (quantitive/quailitive), accom. (positional length, nasalization post [n, m].
15. Alternations of talk sounds in English. Appear alternations ” variations in words, their derivatives and grammatical contact form words. Historical alternations are traced for the ph-mic within earlier intervals of the terminology development, shown in present-day English. Types: 1 . vowel alt-ns (distinction of unusual verbal forms/distinction of origin verbal forms/distinction of regions of speech in etymologically related words); 2-consonants alternations (distinction of irregular verbal forms/distinction of elements of speech/vowel and consonant alternations). Contextual ” altern-s distributed on the synchronic level inside the present-day The english language. They are studied by morphophonology. Looks at the sounds it their fragile pos. Moscow sch. ” the theory of neutralization of ph-mes (when 2+ close sounds happen to be unusually non-contrastive in certain pos-ns). Leningrad sch. asserts which the ph-me is usually independent of the morpheme (ph-me cannot lose special feat-s).
sixteen. Theories on syllable split and formation. Syllables ” minimal pronounceable units in to which sounds show an inclination to group. Syl-ls type morphemes, keywords. The syl-l can be analyzed on articulatory, acoustic, auditory and practical levels. Jespersen, the sonority theory: every single sound can be characterized by a particular degree of sonority which is recognized us traditional property of a sound that determines its perceptibility. Shcherba’s theory of muscular anxiety: the anxious of articulation increases in the range of prevocalic consonants then decreases inside the range of postvocalic consonants. There is not any adequate explanation of exactly what a syllable is definitely. 2 pov: 1)SÐ¾me consider the syl-le to be a strictly articulatory device whithout virtually any functional value. 2)majority deal with the syl-le as the tiniest pronounceable device with some linguistic function. Functional pov ” a syl-le: a)is a series of phonemes of varying length; b) is made on the basis of C ” V contrast; c)V are used as syllable nuclei in every vocabulary while C are not in each and every; d)specific rules of ph-mes distribution in the syl-bic structures.
17. The structure and functions of syllable in English. Syl-le formation will be based upon the phonological opposition Versus ” C. V are often syl-bic, C are not (excluding [l, m, n] ” syl-bic in final pos). Many syllables have one or more consonants previous the nucleus (the syllable onset). Many syllables have one or more rimant, following the nucleus (closed syllables ” the syllable coda). The mixture of nucleus and coda includes a special relevance, making up the rhyming real estate of a syllable. English lang ” shut type of syl-les; Rus ” open type. The problem of syl-le division is that in certain words (city, extra, etc) there is no clear way to make the decision how to separate the word into syl-les. 2 func. of syl-les: 1)constitutive function (the syl-le can be quite a part of expression or morpheme, utterance). 2)distinctive function (the syl-le may differentiate words and phrases and word-forms).
18. Expression stress in English. Pressured (accented) ” syl-le(s) that happen to be uttered with an increase of prominence compared to the other syllables of the expression. Word pressure is anxiety in isolated words. Anxious syl-le: greater force, more energized articul.; higher pitch of tone; the quantity, the standard of vowel. Lang-s can have got fixed or perhaps free tension (English and Russian ” free pressure, may also be moving to difference. lexical units, parts of speech, gramm. Forms). N of degrees of tension = And of syl-les. Primary stress=strongest=–1. Secondary most powerful stress=–2. Others = fragile stress. Viewpoints on their outl. differ among phoneticians. a few func-s of word anxiety: 1)constitutes a word, organizes the syllables of the word right into a language unit with a particular accentual structure. 2) identificatory or recognitive func. ” enables a person to identify a definite accentual pattern of a word. 3)distinctive function ” capability of distinguishing the meaning of words or perhaps their varieties. Recessive inclination ” unpredictable accentual framework due to difference. origin. Rhythmical tendency ” the appearance of the secondary anxiety.
19. Timbre and prosody: definition, features, components, spheres of application. Intonation Elizabeth in every lang. but capabilities differently. Contour analysis strategy: the smallest device to which linguistic meaning could be attached can be described as tone-group (assumpt. that intonationconsists of fundamental functional “blocks). Grammatical software.: intonation is known as a complex of three systemic variables: tonality, tonicity and tone, which are connected with grammatical categories. American sch. thinks pitch phonemes and contours to be the primary units of intonation. Russian linguists agree that expression is a entire, formed by significant variations of presentation, loudness and tempo. Diverse phoneticians suggest diff. features of timbre. Nikolayeva: delimitating, integrating and semantic. Tseplitis: semantic, syntactic and stylistic functions. Cheremisina: communicative, special, delimitating, significant, appellative, cosmetic, integrating. Different phoneticians as well display a lot of difference in heading the linguistic features of timbre. Crystal: psychological, grammatical, informational, textual, internal, indexical functions.
20. The structure of English tone-group. We may consider the distinct variations in the direction of pitch, message level and pitch selection in the frequency component. The most important nuclear shades in The english language are: Low Fall, High Fall, Low Rise, Excessive Rise, and Fall-Rise. Dropping tone= assurance; rising tone=uncertainty. Diff. hues may combine their meanings. Pitch guidelines are message ranges (normal, wide, and narrow) and pitch levels (high, channel, and low). Loudness distinguishes anger, nuisance, excitement, and so forth The tempo implies the pace of the utterance and pausation (normal, slower and quickly ” significant and trivial parts). Presentation is splitted into phonetic wholes, terms, intonation organizations by means of breaks (a complete stop of phonation). Breaks: short (separate inton. grps within a phrase); longer (end of the phrase); very long (2x longer than short ” phonetic wholes). Syntactic breaks separate phonopassages, phrases, and intonation grps. Intonation patterns ” the essential units of intonation ” serve to actualize syntagms (semantically and syntactically complete band of words) in speech. In phonetics, syntagms are called timbre grps (tone-grps). Some timbre patterns may be completely colourless in meaning while others constitute the prosodic approach to English.
21. The phonological level of intonation. Intonology (a branch of phonology) studies the larger units of connected speech: intonation organizations, phrases and phonetic passages. It is only likely to make a tough classification ofinton. patterns since they are very diff. in their nature. Any product of the inton. pattern can be phonological devices (distinctive function). They type a complex approach to intonemes, tonemes, accentemes, chronemes, etc . The terminal strengthen ” the most powerful phonological unit (its opposition differentiates different types of sentence). N of terminal hues indicates In of timbre grps, that could be important for which means. The increase of loudness+terminal hues together single out the semantic (expression) hub of the utterance. Grammatical terms may be important too to the that means (sometimes word was). The main role of the opposition of terminal tones is differentiating the behaviour and emotions. Different kinds of pre-heads, heads, just like pitch ranges and levels fulfil their distinctive function in the combo with other prosodic constituents. Occasionally intonation wipes out or compensates the lexical content with the utterance (Phone him at once, please). Not enough balance among intonation and word content, or timbre and the grammatical structure from the utterance may serve to develop irony or insult somebody.
22. Methods of phonetic research. There are subjective (introspective) and objective methods of phonetic investigation. Direct observation (oldest, simplest) ” observing the movements and positions of people’s organs of speech in pronouncing several speech seems. Objective methods (palatography, laryngoscopy, photography, cinematography, X-ray photography and cinematography and electromyography) together with immediate observation are widely used in experimental phonetics. The objective strategies and the subjective ones happen to be complementary and not opposite to one another. Acoustic phonetics tries to assess and analyze the motion of the air in the conditions of acoustics. The mic is presented into the speech chain ” it changes the air movements into electrical activity and analyses the result in terms of frequency of vibration and the amplitude of stoß. The sound spectrograph helps to check out the spectra of talk sounds. Message as a element of intonation may be investigated simply by intonograph. The acoustic element of speech seems is also researched by means of speech-synthesizing devices.
twenty-three. Phonostylistics. Types and styles of pronunciation in English. Models ofpronunciation ” special types of speech fitted to the aim as well as the contents from the utterance, conditions of conversation, the character with the audience, etc . Several different varieties of pronunciation could possibly be distinguished, but generally accepted classification of varieties of pronunciation will not exist. Jones: the rapid familiar design, the reduced colloquial design, the normal style (addressing a fair-sized audience), the acquired design of the stage, the acquired style (singing). Shcherba: 1) colloquial design characteristic of people’s silent talk; 2) full design, clear articul. of all the syllables of each expression. Gaiduchic: solemn (Ñ‚Ð¾Ñ€Ð¶ÐµÑÑ‚Ð²ÐµÐ½Ð½Ñ‹Ð¹), clinical business (Ð½Ð°ÑƒÑ‡Ð½Ð¾-Ð´ÐµÐ»Ð¾Ð²Ð¾Ð¹), official business (Ð¾Ñ„Ð¸Ñ†Ð¸Ð°Ð»ÑŒÐ½Ð¾-Ð´ÐµÐ»Ð¾Ð²Ð¾Ð¹), everyday (Ð±Ñ‹Ñ‚Ð¾Ð²Ð¾Ð¹), and familiar (Ð½ÐµÐ¿Ñ€Ð¸Ð½ÑƒÐ¶Ð´ÐµÐ½Ð½Ñ‹Ð¹) ” they correlate with functional varieties of the language. It really is preferable to consider style classifications with difference. criteria independently. By the aim of communication: educational, academic (scientific), publicistic, declamatory (artistic), conversational (familiar) designs. There are other factors that impact intonation. Any form is hardly ever realized in its pure kind.