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1 ) (a) I, III, and IV will be correct. II is not really correct.

To clarify III, sobre Broglie’s formula states d = h/(mv), so nl = nh/(mv) = 2pi(r). Where: d = wavelength, v sama dengan velocity of electron, and = a lot of positive integer, r = distance of electron from center, meters = mass of electron. Solve, acquire mvr sama dengan L = nh/2pi. (b) The current wave mechanical unit for the atom states that there are an integer number of wavelengths in each and every standinginteger number (n). installment payments on your (a) The first shell electrons in Lithium are definitely the closest electrons to the center. In addition , there are proportionally even more protons to electrons.

This pulls the electrons even closer to the nucleus. And Potassium, the exterior shell electrons are a substantial distance through the nucleus. A few greater range of protons than electrons, however , the large number of electrons dissipates the effect. This can be in addition to Lithium being a much smaller natural atom than Potassium as a result of difference in the outer covers. (b) The exterior shell intended for Cl is equivalent to Cl-, yet , Cl-has more electrons beingattracted by the same number of protons. This weakens the attraction per electron. Since the interest is less strong, the bad particals are farther from the center.

Since the fascination is more robust for Cl, the electrons are closer to the nucleus. (c) Although the normal pattern is for the ionization energy to increase see the right in a period, light weight aluminum has a decreased ionization energy and magnesium has a raised ionization energy due to the electron configurations of these two ionizations. This verso the buy of ionization energies. (d) The ionization energy raises each time an electron can be removed since there are fewer electrons attracted by same volume of protons while magnesium begins at a relativelyhigh benefit because it begins in one of the recommended forms.

The second ionization energy is lowered because burning off an electron forms a preferred kind and because of the, this is a smaller than regular increase in ionization energy between first and second ionization energies. Another ionization strength is increased the most since it starts in the most standard type. When you combine this using a lower than usual second ionization energy, you obtain a very large embrace ionization energy. 3. (a) As you go for the right with the period, you will discover more protons in the nucleus.

The greater fascination makes it more challenging to remove electrons and initial ionization strength is the strength necessary to take out an electron from a neutral atom. (b) Although the general pattern is to include Boron which has a higher initial ionization energy than Berylium, Boron’s ionization potential can be lowered and Berylium’s ionization potential is usually raised, the order is reversed. (c) O seems to lose one electron and makes this easier to eliminate the electron and lowers the ionization potential. For nitrogen, it harder to remove the electron and raises the ionization potential.

And since Oxygen’s ionization potential is reduced and Nitrogen’s ionization potential is raised, the order is turned. (d) Na has a reduce first ionization energy than Li and also a lower ionization energy than Ne. Ne has the second highest initial ionization energy of all the elements. “1s2is the most preferred electron settings. “s2p6of different shells can also be highly favored. Ne has got the second top first ionization potential mainly because it’s “2s22p6. 4. (a) The type of decay expected for Carbon-11 can be positron emission. 116C -, 115B + 01e (b) The type of rot expected intended for Carbon-14 would be Beta Decay as well. 46C -, 147N + 0-1? (c) Gamma rays don’t have any mass or charge, and so they need not really be shown in nuclear equations. (d) Measure the quantity of Carbon-14 in the lifeless wood and compare with the number of Carbon-14 within a similar living object. your five. (a) 23494Pu -, 23092U + forty two? (b) The missing mass has been converted into energy (E=mc2). (c) A line should be drawn curving downward in the path in the dotted line. This will represent the way of the alpha particles that happen to be repelled by the positive platter and drawn by the adverse one. Another line should be drawn upward from the course of the contract.

This will signify the path with the beta contaminants which are repelled by the adverse plate and attracted by positive a single. The line should curve more than the one pertaining to the alpha particles. Another line should be drawn as being a continuation from the dotted line. This will likely represent the gamma rays. (d) Incineration is a chemical substance process. The only thing any substance process can easily do is usually connect radioactive atoms to other atoms, which has no impact on the radioactivity. 6. (a) As you go down the column inside the alkali precious metals, the outer covering electrons are farther through the nucleus.

The attraction intended for the outer shell electrons can be decreased and because the appeal is decreased, therefore the melting point lessens. (b) Intermolecular forces identify boiling and melting points. Halogens are all diatomic, meaning they connection with themselves. In these diatomic compounds, the only intermolecular pressure isLondon pushes. The larger elements can form temporary dipoles less difficult than small molecules. The larger molecules as you go down the line have the attractive force. This increases the melting point as you go over the column. several. a) Since radius boosts the heat of reaction diminishes. Which means significantly less energy introduced by ionic attraction. (b) As ionization energy enhances the heat of reaction diminishes, which means even more energy is required to form M2+ while other factors remain unchanged 8. Metals are good conductors of heat, generally malleable, and react by losing electrons to form cations. They tend to acquire “s1, “s2, “s2p1, or”s2p2as their very own outer cover. Most alloys have just “s1or”s2. Nonmetals happen to be poor conductors of heat, frail, and gain electrons when reacting with metals to form anions.

Nonmetals have both 3, 5, 5, or 6 bad particals in the p subshell furthermore to s2of the same shell number. When the last subshell is a m, the outer shell is s2of the next shell. Occasionally you will see only 1 electron in the s subshell which explains when the transition components are alloys. When the previous subshell is known as a “f, the outer shell is s2of the other higher layer and this points out when the lanthanides and actinides are alloys. This shows how over fifty percent of the regular table will be metals. on the lookout for. (a) “you have not discovered this one yet (b) “F2has the highestelectronegativityandelectron affinity.

Thus it has the greatest attraction for extra electrons. F2+2e -, 2F, 1This makes the reaction very likely to occur. “I2has the lowest electronegativity and electron affinity. Thus it has fewer attraction for added electrons making the reactionI2+2e -, 2I, 1less likely to occur. Because it can disperse the fee better, the reaction does happen. (c) Fashionable for alkalinity metals shows a very little variation in reducing durability without a actual trend. Cesium has the least expensive ionization potential and Li (symbol) has the greatest ionization potential. However , there is not a great big difference in the alkali metals.

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