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Travel and leisure Economics, 2009, 15 (4), 867–873 Research note: The effect of Korean language TV video clips on Taiwanese tourism demand for Korea HYUN JEONG KIM School of Hospitality Business Management, Wa State College or university, Pullman, CALIFORNIA 99164-742, UNITED STATES. E-mail: [email, protected] edu.
MING-HSIANG CHEN Department of Finance, Nationwide Chung Cheng University, Chia-Yi, Taiwan, ROC. E-mail: [email, protected] edu. tw. HUNG-JEN SU Division of Administration, National Chung Cheng University, Chia-Yi, Taiwan, ROC. E-mail: [email, protected] edu. tw. This analyze examines the effects of popular Korean TV dramas on Taiwanese outbound travel to Korea among 1997 plus the end of 2005.
The popularity of Korean TV dramas began while using drama Fireworks, first displayed in Taiwan from This summer to September 2000. Based upon that information, the data were divided into two subsamples: January 1997 to September 2k and October 2000 to December june 2006. The Chow tests unveiled a significant structural change in the whole number of Taiwanese visitors to Korea between the two sample intervals. Additional studies indicated that a significant strength change was attributable primarily to the embrace pleasure travel, further displaying the good effects of Korean language TV series in Taiwan.
Empirical results support the concept of film-induced tourism. Keywords: TV theatre, Korea, Taiwan, outbound travel around, Chow tests Traditionally, To the south Korea provides focused on conveying manufactured goods. However , recently, the country is now known for exporting entertainment products. In May 1994, the Korean language Presidential Admonitory Board about Science and Technology produced its initial report regarding the impact of digital technology on economic creation. The record pointed out that the Hollywood film Jurassic Park generated earnings equivalent to overseas sales of 1. million Hyundai cars (Shim, 2002). The comparison among Hyundai cars and 868 TOURISM ECONOMICS Hollywood films drew the country’s awareness of the importance of media content for the national economic system. Since then, the Korean government has declared the excessive value-added audiovisual industry as one of the national strategic industries for century. In 1995, the federal government enacted the Motion Picture Advertising Law, with incentives including tax breaks to encourage organizations to invest in the film market (Shim, 2002).
Korean TV dramas would not travel very much beyond the national border until the later 1990s. Combined with Korean government’s support intended for the film industry, Korean language TV dramas began to be transmit in Asia, the Middle East, Eastern European countries and Russian federation (Lin and Huang, 2006). The Taiwanese media coined the motto ‘Korean Wave’ in 2001, in response to the phenomenal popularity of the Korean pop lifestyle in Taiwan (Chang ain al, 2005). Not only provides Taiwan recently been engulfed by the ‘Korean Wave’, but likewise Japan, Chinese suppliers, Singapore and Malaysia (Lin and Huang, 2006).
The popularity of Korean TV video clips in Taiwan began with Fireworks, initially aired in 2000. The programme was an enormous success and it was rerun several times over the years, therefore forming the foundation of the ‘Korean Wave’ in Taiwan (Sung, 2008). Since Fireworks, much more than 100 Korean soap operas have been displayed in Taiwan (Lin and Huang, 2006). The Korean TV programs have led to a dramatic change in the negative picture associated with Korea, for example , roughness, violence and a lack of ethnical refinement (Sung, 2008).
Taiwanese people are at this point more happy to purchase Korean consumer products (Onishi, 2005), join a worldwide trip to Korea (Onishi, 2005) or find out Korean vocabulary (Sung, 2008). Lee (2005) argued that the popularity of Korean language TV video clips and movies offshore could kick off a second economical boom intended for South Korea, particularly gaining the entertainment and travel industries. Shelter (2005) stated that based on the export figures of Southern Korean TELEVISION dramas, Taiwan was a leading importer (24. 5%), followed by Japan (19%), China (18. 6%) and Hong Kong (3. %). Consequently, this analyze tests the influence of the popularity of Korean language TV series in Taiwan for the number of Taiwanese tourists going to Korea. Though previous research have discussed the effect of films about tourism (Tooke and Baker, 1996, Riley et ing, 1998), zero formal statistical tests have already been performed to measure the significant embrace visitation and there has been not any focus on a specific overseas market. Taiwanese travel demand for Korea: from 1980 to june 2006 Geographically, South Korea and Taiwan are extremely close to each other.
After Ww ii, both countries perceived each other as politics allies before the early nineties. For more than a decade (1980–1992), the number of Taiwanese people to Korea increased gradually via 76, 995 to 302, 184, with an average twelve-monthly growth charge of 14. 59% (see Figure one particular for the monthly travelling flow by Taiwan to Korea). Nevertheless , in August 1992, Korea severed diplomatic connections with Taiwan to follow its relationship with Cina. In 93, the travelling flow flattened dramatically, simply by almost 60%, after the end of the personal relationship.
The reduced Taiwanese with regard to travel to Korea lasted about eight years (1993– 2000), with a bad annual growth rate of –8. 84%. Taiwanese tourism demand for Korea Total outbound departures 800, 000 seven hundred, 000 600, 000 five-hundred, 000 400, 000 three hundred, 000 two hundred, 000 75, 000 zero 80 82 84 86 88 85 92 94 96 98 00 02 04 you 869 you 2 several 4 Taiwanese tourist arrivals to Korea 50, 500 1 forty five, 000 40, 000 20, 000 twelve, 000 0 80 82 84 86 88 90 92 94 96 98 00 02 04 a couple of 3 four Figure 1 . Monthly period series of total Taiwanese outbound departures (all countries) and total Taiwanese tourist arrivals in Korea: 1/1980–12/2005.
Be aware: Dotted line you – end of politics relationship among Korea and Taiwan (8/1992). Dotted line a couple of – earthquake of twenty one September (9/1999). Dotted line 3 – start of popularity of Korean language TV series in Taiwan (10/2000). Dotted line some – break out of SARS in Taiwan (4/2003). Starting in 2001, the number of Taiwanese tourists going to Korea elevated rapidly, though political ties were not renewed. Experts credit the unexpected travel stream to Korea to the unprecedented popularity of Korean TV video clips in Taiwan (Onishi, 2005). The growth level of the travel around flow to Korea (28. 9%) in a short period is usually impressive: 108, 831 in 2000 to 368, 205 in june 2006. One razor-sharp decrease occurred in 2003 as a result of negative a result of the SARS outbreak in Taiwan on Taiwanese overseas departures.
You read ‘The Impact of Korean Television Dramas about Taiwanese Tourism Demand’ in category ‘Essay examples’ Nevertheless , the number of Taiwanese visitors to Korea rebounded quickly. In 2005, to accommodate the strong travel and leisure demand for Korea, Taiwan signed a new aviation agreement with 870 ENJOYMENT 40, 000 TOURISM ECONOMICS BUSINESS three hundred 250 31, 000 200 20, 000 150 100 10, 1000 50 0 97 98 99 00 01 02 03 ’04 05 0 97 98 99 00 01 02 03 04 05 STANDARD 3, 500 2, 500 2, 000 60 one particular, 500 forty 1, 1000 500 zero 97 98 99 00 01 02 03 ’04 05
ADDITIONAL 100 eighty 20 0 97 98 99 00 01 02 03 04 05 Determine 2 . Month to month time-series data of Taiwanese tourist landings in Korea: different purposes for visiting (1/1997–12/2005). Korea to job application flights between the two countries, ending a 12-year suspension on standard flight solutions (Government Details Office, 2005). Data, hypotheses and testing of strength changes Figure 1 gives monthly time-series data of total Taiwanese overseas travelling (all countries) from January 1980 to December june 2006, data were obtained from different issues of the annual report upon tourism by the Taiwan Tourism Bureau.
Physique 1 as well plots the monthly info of total Taiwanese telephone travel to Korea over the same period. Info were collected from the Korea National Travel Organization’s (KNTO) Taipei business office. Figure a couple of illustrates monthly data of Taiwanese arrivals to Korea in terms of reasons for browsing: pleasure, organization, official and other. Data through the KNTO Taipei office had been available for simply nine years, from January 1997 to December 2005. KNTO (2006) reported that in june 2006 pleasure trips accounted for 94. 1% with the total Taiwanese travel to Korea, in the same year, organization, official and other categories made up only 0. 23%, 4. 86% and 0. 10%, respectively. To measure whether the popularity of Korean TELEVISION dramas in Taiwan has a Taiwanese tourism demand for Korea 871 significant impact on Taiwanese travel to Korea, we hypothesize that there is a structural enhancements made on the total range of Taiwanese trips to Korea before and after March 2000. This date is usually selected because the first popular Korean TV SET drama, Fireworks, ended in Sept. 2010 2000. To investigate the ffects of the demand for Korean TV SET dramas further, we test if there is a structural enhancements made on total outbound departures (all countries) after and before October 2000. We anticipate no structural change in total outbound take-offs if the significant increase in Taiwanese overseas travel and leisure is restricted to South Korea, due to popular Korean TELEVISION dramas rather than the overall regarding outbound travel around in Taiwan. In addition , we all apply similar hypothesis for the different reasons for visitation (business, satisfaction, official and other) to see which type of visit is affected even more significantly by the popularity of Korean language TV series.
Appropriately, the following hypotheses are analyzed: • Speculation 1: We have a structural difference in the total range of Taiwanese people to Korea after and before October 2k. • Speculation 2: There is also a structural enhancements made on the total Taiwanese outbound departures before and after October 2000. • Hypothesis several: There is a strength change in the number of Taiwanese delight trips to Korea before and after October 2150. • Hypothesis 4: There is also a structural difference in the number of Taiwanese business excursions to Korea before and after March 2000. Speculation 5: There is also a structural enhancements made on the number of Taiwanese official journeys to Korea before and after Oct 2000. • Hypothesis 6: There is a strength change in the number of trips of the other category after and before October 2k. We utilized two Chow tests, specifically the Chow breakpoint ensure that you the Chow forecast test out, to ensure the regularity of structural break check results. To perform the testing, the full test period can be divided into two subsamples: January 1997 to September 2150 and October 2000 to December 2006.
The benefits of the Chow breakpoint test (Table 1) show a substantial structural change in the total range of Taiwanese surfers to Korea, yet no structural change in the overall Taiwanese telephone departures before and after October 2k. In addition , structural changes will be detected in pleasure travel and leisure and official travel, yet no significant structural change is found in organization and other travel. In conclusion, the Chow breakpoint test effects support Ideas 1, 3 and five. Table 1 ) Tests of a structural change in the number of Taiwanese visitors: before and after the demand for Korean TV series.
Tourist landings Total outbound departures Total Pleasure Taiwanese visitors to Korea Yes Yes Yes Certainly Business Standard Other Chow breakpoint test out Chow outlook test Not any No Not any No Certainly No No Yes 872 TOURISM ECONOMICS The Chow forecast check produced similar results, with a small difference in the results of travel purposes (Table 1). Structural improvements are discovered in the count of Taiwanese visitors to Korea, pleasure travel and leisure and other travel and leisure, no structural changes are simply in the total Taiwanese outbound departures and business and official travel and leisure before and after 2k.
Therefore , Ideas 1, several and 6 are recognized. Discussion and conclusion This study performs tests of structure changes to examine the consequences of popular Korean TV dramas on Taiwanese outbound travel to Korea coming from January 1997 to January 2005. The two Chow assessments demonstrate a structural enhancements made on the total quantity of Taiwanese visitors to Korea among two intervals: before and after October 2000 (before and after the showing with the Korean episode Fireworks).
In addition , the fact that there is no strength change in the overall number of Taiwanese outbound take-offs suggests that the numerous increase in travel and leisure flow to Korea is an independent sensation, not linked to the overall regarding outbound take-offs in Taiwan. Chow tests, using travelling purposes, usually do not show that business travelling has a significant structural change, indicating that the quantity of Taiwanese travellers coming to Korea for business can be not altered significantly prior to nd following 2000. Intended for official and also other travel, the results of two Chow tests happen to be mixed, therefore , it may be difficult to support the existence of a structural change. Among four groupings, only pleasure travel regularly shows a structural modify through both Chow assessments. This indicates that pleasure travel and leisure most likely hard drives a structural change in the whole number of Taiwanese visitors to Korea before and after 2000, thereby additional demonstrating the significant effects of well-liked Korean dramas in Taiwan.
If Korean TV video clips, staged in Taiwan within the last few years, were linked to travelling motivation, the effect would be found on enjoyment trips instead of other types. Total, this study presents strong evidence regarding the effects of film on abroad travellers and supports the concept of film-induced travel and leisure (Tooke and Baker, 1996, Kim et al, 2007). After diplomatic ties resulted in 1992, To the south Korea was perceived by the Taiwanese being a violent country and the one that overnight traded loyalty and faith for economic increases (Choe, 2001).
Although this kind of study does not measure the image/perception change, it can be reasonable to assume that the widely used Korean TELEVISION dramas have had a positive impact on the image of Korea, thus leading to even more Taiwanese delight trips to Korea. This study, consequently , confirms indirectly that movies, specifically TELEVISION SET dramas, is definitely an effective automobile to change the perception of a specific destination country and further relieve political issue between two countries by stimulating social/pleasure travel stream (Kim ainsi que al, 2007).
The film-induced tourism of this study is therefore in accordance with earlier notions that tourism is likely to work as a positive pressure to promote peacefulness by reducing tension and suspicion (D’Amore, 1988). The truly great success of Korean TV dramas in neighbouring Parts of asia such as Taiwan seems to provide an opportunity to consider countries further more away than Asia. Because of globalization, outbound travels through the West to the East (and vice versa) are elevating constantly. The West might learn Oriental culture, Taiwanese tourism with regard to Korea 873 specifically Korean language culture, through Korean video clips or movies.
Therefore , the Korean authorities should develop the further understanding as a result of film-induced travel and leisure to promote South Korea being a more appealing travel destination in the world. Future research directions The analysis of the present research is at an over-all level, digesting Taiwanese landings only by simply total and purpose of go to. It is helpful to identify the detailed profile of Taiwanese visitors driven by popular Korean TELEVISION SET dramas. Therefore, it is recommended that upcoming research with this kind comes with demographic parameters such as gender, age and occupation.
Moreover to Taiwanese tourists, related analyses must be performed using visitors from other countries/places in which Korean TV programmes are broadcast. Presently, the film-induced tourism with regard to Korea is being generated from East and South East Asian countries the place that the ‘Korean Wave’ exists firmly. In Asia, each country has its unique cultural persona and economical power. Several demographic or perhaps behavioural differences may be found among these types of Asian people to Korea. References Chang, L., Chen, Con., and Liu, Z. 2005), ‘Korean Wave swept through and carried off a large portion of money’, China Times, 12 May 12 (http://news. chinatimes. com/Chinatimes, accessed doze October 2007). Choe, Y. (2001), ‘Asia dreaming of Korea’s pop singers and actors’, Korea Herald, 11 September (http://kn. koreaherald. co. kr/SITE/data/html_dir/2001/09/11/200109110034. asp, utilized 13 August 2007). D’Amore, L. (1988), ‘Tourism: a crucial force for peace’, Life of Travel and leisure Research, Vol 15, pp 269– 270. Government Info Office (2005), Foreign Associations, Government Info Office, Taipei, Taiwan. Betty, S. S., Agrusa, T. Lee, They would., and Chon, K. (2007), ‘Effects of Korean tv set dramas around the flow of Japanese tourists’, Tourism Managing, Vol 28, pp 1340–1353. KNTO (Korea National Tourism Organization) (2006), ‘Overview of Korea’s tourism industry’ (http://www. knto. or perhaps. kr, seen 13 March 2007). Lee, D. (2005), ‘Winter sonata drama fever’, UNIORB: Asian Trend: Japan/South Korea (http:// uniorb. com/ATREND/Japanwatch/wsdramafever. htm, seen 12 October 2007). Lin, Y., and Huang, L. (2006), ‘Marketing of Southern region Korean travel using TELEVISION mini series’, Business Review, Vol your five, pp 61–65. Onishi, D. 2005), ‘Roll over, Godzilla: Korea rules’, The New York Times, twenty eight June. Riley, R., Baker, D., and Van Doren, C. H. (1998), ‘Movie induced tourism’, Annals of Tourism Analysis, Vol 23, pp 919–935. Shim, D. (2002), ‘South Korean media industry inside the 1990s and the economic crisis’, Prometheus, Vol 20, pp 337–350. Being sung, S. (2008), ‘The substantial tide with the Korean Trend III: why do Oriental fans choose Korean take culture? ‘ Korea Herald, 4 March. Tooke, In., and Baker, M. (1996), ‘Seeing is definitely believing: the effect of film on visitor numbers to screened locations’, Tourism Supervision, Vol 18, pp 87–94.
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