With this course, you will conduct the experiments on the Fluid Technicians Laboratory, by yourselves, with no help or instruction from your teaching assistants. You must read the lab sheet thoroughly and understand what you are expected to perform (and why) for each try things out, before going to the lab. At the end of each test, you will have to perform certain computations, present and plot (when asked) the results on the provided statement sheets placed on the end from the lab sheet.
The experiment as well as the report-writing can all take place in the lab within the time allocated to your group (total: one particular hour). You will not have any moment to study invisalign sheet through the lab hour, if you have not really done so before. Therefore , you have to come for the lab completely prepared. Even though you execute the tests as a group, each individual will submit a separate report (not just one group report) at the end in the lab hour.
You will have no “group study in writing the information ” everyone will make his/her survey individually using the data he recorded during the experiments.
To get Experiment 1, you must take a calculator to the lab. You must also have your watch or a termes conseillés (you will certainly record time in one of the experiments).
The denseness of a the liquid is to be tested using a hydrometer.
1 . 1 . 2 Theory
A hydrometer uses the theory of buoyancy to determine the particular gravity of your liquid. Right here, the weight of the hydrometer (set by metal spheres in
its bulb) is well balanced by the buoyancy force applied by the liquefied in which it can be immersed. The buoyancy force is the excess weight of the liquefied displaced by the solid. Figure 1 . you presents the working principle of your hydrometer. Through this sketch, a hydrometer is shown immersed in two different liquids. The stem of the hydrometer has a cross-sectional area of A. If the liquid is distilled water (Figure 1 . 1a), then its specific gravity will be 1 ) 0. At equilibrium
Watts = Ïw g Versus
* revised by M. Erdal, Oct 2011
Determine 1 . you A hydrometer in distilled water and another liquefied where Watts is the fat of the hydrometer, ÏW may be the density from the distilled normal water, g is the gravitational velocity ( on the lookout for. 81 m/s2 ) and V is definitely the volume of the submerged section of the hydrometer in distilled normal water. The position in the distilled normal water surface is marked on the stem from the hydrometer to point the guide specific gravity. When the hydrometer is now floated in another the liquid with a particular gravity of s, as shown in Figure 1 ) 1b, the equation to get the straight equilibrium becomes where Ï indicates the density from the second liquefied. Note that l would be tested as a adverse value for liquids lighter weight than drinking water, i. at the. when the position of the water level about hydrometer is above the research level (s = 1 . 0). Combining Equations (1. 1) and (1. 2) and solving for s i9000 yields
The liquid placement on the stem may then be marked away to read the liquid specific gravity, s i9000 (Figure 1 . 1b).
1 . 1 . three or more Experimental Procedure
The hydrometer being used in the measurement is definitely shown in Figure 1 . 2 . For the hydrometer range (Figure 1 . 2 (a)), the level one thousand refers to this particular level
s = 1 . 0. The remaining amounts above happen to be scaled relative to s sama dengan 1 . zero, e. g. the level seven-hundred corresponds to t = 0. 7 and so forth. In the lab test set-up, you will
Browse the specific gravity, s, in the liquid in the stem in the hydrometer, with the position where the liquid software intersects the stem with the hydrometer. Record s upon the data table in the record sheet.
Find the value of the denseness of water, Ïw, in the recorded temp by using the normal water thermodynamic table provided to you personally in the lab. Record this density on to the data stand in the survey sheet.
Evaluate the density of the the liquid, Ï, while
Ï sama dengan s Ïw
and show the calculation inside the report piece.
MEASUREMENT OF VISCOSITY
1 ) 2 . you Objective
The viscosity of a liquefied is to be scored using a Saybolt Universal Viscometer.
1 . 2 . 2 Theory
A number of different types of viscometers are used for viscosity measurements. These are (i) efflux, (ii) rotating and (iii) dropping sphere type viscometers.
Saybolt viscometer, the sketch of which is proven in Figure 1 . 3, is one of the efflux type viscometers and acknowledged as a common instrument in U. S. A. Several others utilized in Europe will be Engler (Germany), Reduced (England) and, Barbey (France).
Saybolt viscometer includes a narrow water tank connected to a little discharge conduit. The water tank is filled with the liquid in whose viscosity is usually to be determined. Within the action of gravity, the liquid of unknown viscosity flows through the discharge pipe into a standard receiving flask with a potential of sixty cm3. When the flask is filled with the liquid up to its neck, the complete capacity with the flask is reached (60 cm3 of liquid).
Number 1 . a few Saybolt Regular Viscometer
Following your cork in the bottom of the viscometer is eliminated, the time in seconds, which can be known as the Saybolt Universal Secs (S. U. S. ), for the liquid to fill the 60 cm3 standard flask is measured. This may in that case be transformed into kinematic viscosity, by using the formulation where A and B will be calibration constants having the beliefs of 0. 226Ã—10-6 m2/s2 and 195Ã—10-6 m2, respectively, Î½ is definitely the kinematic viscosity in m2/s and big t is the amount of time in s. The determination of viscosity will be based upon the premise that liquids with higher viscosities would much more to complete the flask since their particular resistance to deformation (and hence, flow) would be higher. Be aware that
the determined house is kinematic viscosity, rather than dynamic viscosity, as the density with the liquid can be an influential component for stream due to the law of gravity.
1 . 2 . 3 Trial and error Procedure
The Saybolt viscometer inside the lab is shown in Figure 1 ) 4. With this viscometer, you will find 4 several liquid reservoirs, each mounted on a separate output tube (each end is definitely sealed using a different
Examine (by visual inspection) in the event that reservoir two is filled with the liquid. Generate
sure the natural below the reservoir 2 tube is in place. If reservoir 2 is usually not stuffed with the the liquid, one or equally flasks could have the water in them. Fill tank 2 simply by pouring the liquid in the flask(s). You can put empty flask (the 1 with the sixty cm3 level marked) beneath the reservoir two tube.
Remove the natural at the bottom of the tube to start out the movement. (iii)
Record the time for the the liquid to fill the flask up to the sixty cm3 level and write this benefit in your report.
(iv) Convert the Saybolt Universal Seconds to the kinematic viscosity using Equation (1. 5). 1 . 3
ADJUSTED OF A BOURDON GAGE WITH A DEAD EXCESS WEIGHT
1 . a few. 1 Target
A Bourdon gauge is to be arranged using a dead weight specialist.
1 . several. 2 Theory
An inactive weight tester, the schematic of which is shown in Figure 1 . 9, is a device with which the exact ideals of liquid pressure might be produced through the use of standard weight loads acting top to bottom on a frictionless piston of known area. A Bourdon gage, which is attached to the other end with the tester, may be calibrated simply by reading the values indicated by its pointer, and comparing while using corresponding pressure values due to the presence in the weights on the piston.
The tightening in the screw raises the pressure of the oil under the intervention. The oil exerts pressure on the piston and the Bourdon 5 gage. As the piston begins to rise, the pressure used by the weight loads becomes comparable to the petrol pressure in the piston. The readings for the Bourdon gage should be recorded at this equilibrium. By changing the number of weights on the piston and saving the corresponding gauge readings, a calibration curve for the Bourdon gage can be obtained.
Figure 1 . 9 Dead-weight tester
1 . some. 3 Trial and error Procedure
The useless weight specialist and the weights in the Fluid Mechanics Laboratory are proven in Number 1 . twelve. The Bourdon gage to become calibrated is definitely attached to the tester. The amount of weight are to be packed on the intervention on the left. The magnitude of each and every weight is written upon it. (i)
Launch the pressure under the left piston by simply turning the piston counterclockwise.
Devoid of placing any kind of weights, tighten the mess (turn clockwise) until the kept piston increases. During tensing, spin the upper end of the left piston slowly clockwise to reduce the friction between your piston plus the cylinder. Simply by tightening the screw, you are pressurizing the petrol under the piston so that this pressure can easily overcome the weight of the piston.
Record the pressure studying, p1, on the Bourdon gauge. This is the pressure corresponding towards the weight from the piston.
intervention to be
Bourdon gage to
always be calibrated
Figure 1 . 10. Dead-weight tester as well as the weights on the Fluids Technicians Laboratory
Record the used pressure, p2, by the dead weight tester (p2 sama dengan 1 kg/cm2 without any extra weights within the piston; i. e. this is actually the pressure the piston excess weight exerts)
Release the screw simply by turning that counterclockwise.
Repeat methods (ii) to (v) with the help of different dumbbells on the piston. Note that you can expect to record a total of 5 data details. Obtain pressure values that concentrate in making the range in the Bourdon gage, as consistently as possible.
Plot the p1(y-axis) versus p2(x-axis) contour for the calibration in the Bourdon gage.
Find the adjusted constant with the Bourdon gauge (the incline of the graph) and discuss the result briefly.
NAME OF THE PUPIL:
TERM OF THE RESEARCH LABORATORY. SUPERVISOR:
TRAINING COURSE SECTION:
MYSELF 305 SMOOTH MECHANICS I
TRY THINGS OUT 1 REPORT
WAY OF MEASURING OF FLUID PROPERTIES
1 . 1
WAY OF MEASURING OF THE DENSITY OF A LIQUID
1 . 1 ) 1 Data
Specific gravity, s
Density of water, Ïw, @15C (kg/m3)
1 . 1 . 2 Computation and Effect
1 . two
MEASUREMENT OF VISCOSITY
1 ) 2 . you Data
S i9000. U. S.
1 . 2 . 2 Calculations and Consequence
ME 305 ” Research 1 Report
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1 . 3
CALIBRATION OF A BOURDON GAGE THROUGH A DEAD FAT
1 . several. 1 Info
[Bourdon gage reading]
1 . 3. 2 Plot of p1 versus p2 Curve
1 . 3. 3 Calculation of Calibration Continuous of Bourdon Gage and Comments
ME 305 ” Experiment you Report
Site 2 of 2