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Kodak major case essay

Kodak’s main problem was not foreseeing and adapting to advertise changes of price and competition. Kodak had completely outclassed the photo film market for most of the 1900s right up until competitors just like Fuji started out taking market share from Kodak in 1984. Kodak overlooked the new risks until the overdue 1990s, depending on their industry dominance. Difficulty Analysis Kodak offered three product lines to focus on various industry segments as part of their Funtime strategy to regain market share. Prior to this strategy, Kodak offered simply two products, Ektar, their superpremium collection, and Noble Gold, their premium line.

That they planned to introduce Funtime film, a great economy manufacturer film, which will targeted the price sensitive buyer. The target market is the average film user who have little or no education about film, buys strictly on cost, and is certainly not influenced by simply advertising ” the fifty percent of buyers that were not brand dedicated (40% were film “samplers; 10% acquired on price). Gold As well as is the high quality brand film and is developed to target normal consumers who also are already Kodak-loyal or seeking quality images over cost.

The superpremium film, Hoheitsvoll Gold’s target market is experts, serious beginners and average consumers who pay the premium intended for professional grade images for “very special occasions. (See Appendix A) In the 1990’s Kodak’s main competitors were Fuji of Japan, Agfa of Germany, 3M, Konica of Japan, and Polaroid being a late competitor. Kodak has its own ways to separate themselves from these competitors. Because an established digital photography and film brand, Kodak has completely outclassed 70% in the market share inside the U. H.; where most of their competitors are a new comer to the market.

Kodak has not offered a private or economy film line just like many other opponents have. Inside the superpremium rate Fujicolor Reala was aimed towards advanced amateurs and professionals only while Kodak targeted a more broad segment with their competing Noble Gold collection. In the Economy brand tier, Funtime was launched because an economy brand competing with Fujicolor Super G, Konica Very SR, and ScotchColor. Funtime was the just film in this brand rate to be offered only at off-peak film use times and only packed in benefit packs. Kodak dominated the film industry all through the 1900’s.

They by no means received any kind of major competition until Fuji began to harm their business in the 1980s, when they were announced since the official film sponsors from the 1984 Summer season Olympics in Los Angeles, Kodak 3 A bunch of states. Kodak believed their dominance and customer loyalty might continue to bring them since new competitors entered the market and as film prices had been beginning to show up. They glossed over their competition and would not react in no time. It looked like as if Kodak believed that folks would not acquire another film other than Kodak. By the late 1980s the film market began to discover many rivals and Kodak’s market share began to fall.

Whilst still the dominant competition, their business fell by 76% in 1989 to 70% in 1994, and similarly the regular price of film started to fall. Although Kodak’s film rolls were in the neighborhood of $3. 50 to $6 every roll, competitors began publishing film under private brands starting by $2. 19. Shortly after the economy film market began to form, Consumer Reports released a good test of the top 6th films in the market. While Kodak positioned themselves as the superior quality film, Consumer Studies reported that, “We located most videos to be simply no better or worse than their competitors of the same speed¦

and will yield prints of comparable top quality. Kodak’s standard, Gold In addition, even rated below Fuji’s economy film. With film market growing, Discount Merchandiser released a survey in 1991 stating that “more than 50% in the picture takers in the US claims to know practically nothing or very little about pictures, and as a results they tend to view film as a asset, often ordering on price alone.  This led Kodak into a major repositioning of it is film production, introducing Funtime film, an economic film collection, something Kodak would have under no circumstances previously regarded.

Kodak was desperate to retrieve some of the business they had lately lost and implemented a brand new strategy to support recapture some of their market share. They will introduced the Funtime Strategy. In this technique, Kodak might offer 3 lines of film (superpremium, premium and economy). The economy line was new to get Kodak given that they specialized in high end photography that was parallel with their superior quality brand image. Funtime was going to be offered at 20% below Gold Additionally (their high grade brand) and offered in limited quantities only twice a year at off-peak film use times, four months out of your year.

Funtime was only sold in “valuepacks of two or several rolls from the two the majority of popular speeds, ISO 90 and 2 hundred. The major inconsistency with implementing this new technique was the lack of advertising put in by Kodak; they presented no support and an absence of commitment to Funtime. Kodak was very worried with maintaining its high profit margins that they can were not willing to cannibalize their particular market share prior to competition did. Kodak 4 Whereas their focus was going to regain some market share with the new Funtime line, they replaced all their superpremium line with Regal Gold, broadening their “professional target market.

They will emphasized that Royal Rare metal could be intended for “very special occasions not just professional pictures. Kodak put in 40% of its total film-advertising budget on this collection and the different 60% upon its Platinum Plus. The Funtime strategy was a last chance effort to restore market share and compete with plr brands. This seemed which the economy collection was introduced too late to recuperate the shares that were shed. By only offering that twice a year Kodak looked as if these were not fully committed to this kind of line. Deficiency of advertising dispatched a deceitful message.

That appeared as if they were concealing the line as to not take away off their other “quality lines. That they wanted to keep their high quality image when competing in the low end in the market too. This strategy will not solve their particular problem of competing with the competitors. The situation did not point out any new ways that Kodak tried to separate themselves from their competitors or perhaps explain to their customers why that they thought they were superior to them. Kodak provided 3 key lines of film but did not teach the customer within the difference involving the lines.

They stated their particular superpremium, high grade and economy lines although did not remember to educate the consumers in the difference between three lines and how they will differentiated using their competition. Since Consumer Reviews released research showing that a lot of film proceeds in that time performed similarly and printed photos of equivalent quality. Kodak did not take the time to distinguish themselves from this fresh competition yet simply relied on their trustworthy brand name they’d built in the many years movement prior. Before differentiating themselves from their competition they should possess reacted right away to fresh competition rather than ignore that.

Because Kodak was late to react, Fuji could easily separate themselves from Kodak. Kodak should have seen Fuji’s sponsoring of the LA Summer Olympics as a threat. They should have got immediately started out discussion strategies on transfering themselves in order to avoid the competition absorbing their industry. Kodak was not prepared pertaining to the market alterations that came. The week of January twenty-five, 1994, Kodak’s stock misplaced 8% in value. Kodak was used to the large income on film and could certainly not rationalize cannibalizing their own earnings by cutting down costs due to their rigid administration before the entire industry lowered prices.

The truth was that the film market was slowly and gradually declining, people viewed digital photography as a product and they had been just within the cusp of Kodak 5 the digital era. Kodak was reluctant to come to terms with the brand new reality. Their competition made a fortune on the market alterations and private film companies started out offering lower cost film of comparable top quality. Kodak did not look significantly enough into the future of the industry and were slow to react to competition which is why they failed to stay ahead of their competition and minimize any kind of losses. Alternative Solutions

Because of Kodak’s dropped market share, reduced stock rates, and decreasing profit margins, it had been evident that the company was headed within a downward spiral. Making it through within the industry, due to film being a product product, was not easy, and the company was in dire need to revive its very own value. To solve its main problem, not foreseeing and establishing to market alterations, we recommend five alternative solutions: (1) delve into from suppliers market share, (2) better teach customers regarding the products’ benefits and ideals, (3) spend more time on research and development, (4) stopping production of the

Funtime item, and (5) both educating customers about the products’ benefits and values, and spending more hours on research and development. Alternative Remedy 1 Kodak could promote its film in benefit packs for wholesale shops, such as Costco or Sam’s Club, in order to regain the market share within the industry. In doing so , this may be a great way pertaining to Kodak to tap into market share that had not yet recently been touched. Film, at this point, was not sold in larger wholesale provides, and was being sold mostly in smaller sized groupings, at general selling facilities.

Due to recent way up trend with consumers buying in bulk, wholesale retailers were getting more loyal customers each and every day. By selling inside these types of retailers, companies had been more likely to do well because this was obviously a retail specific niche market that was evolving, and would give particular brands and products more consumer identification. Kodak would have taken good thing about the solid market and constant customers which a wholesale selling company previously has. Simply by partnering with Costco, for instance , Kodak could become their exclusive film partner.

With this type of collaboration, Kodak might be able to capitalize on the exclusivity of Costco’s film sales. As well, seeing recently that Costco has become a common place to get consumers to have their progresses of film developed, and often sells film rolls in value bags, it seems to become one-stop-shop for families who also are frequently on-the-go. If perhaps Kodak 6 Kodak would have been to partner efficiently with suppliers like this, the business would be able to gain further market share and sales, because people will increase their recognition of this particular brand, and can become the go-to brand for some.

Wholesale suppliers, like Costco, are extremely popular and well-trusted. By associating its picture with these companies, Kodak could have a competitive advantage over others inside the industry, and could be linked to Costco’s positive identity, this provides itself a positively-positioned photo relative to its competitors. The biggest disadvantage in implementing this solution, nevertheless , would be in securing a mutually-beneficial partnership with a low cost retailer.

The majority of wholesalers probably would not necessarily be likely to invest in an exclusive partnership to one particular brand (in this case, Kodak), simply because they limit their own merchandise availability, and so cut within their own product sales. Retailers, just like Costco and Sam’s Club, focus on possessing a wide variety of products from which customers may select. If bulk suppliers were to devote exclusively to Kodak, per se, then they may lose out on potential sales via consumers who wish the competing film item. There is not always an inherent advantage for wholesalers with exclusivity. Alternative Remedy 2

In addition to selling inside wholesale selling locations, make sure regain lost market share is always to better inform consumers with regards to camera film. Film came into existence a item product to most consumers, and there was small customer commitment to any particular camera film brand. Differentiation between the companies’ own products, in addition to the competitors’ items, is an important aspect of any organization. However , it appears that Kodak was missing a differentiation strategy and had not communicated to consumers how its products were placed positively, in accordance with those of the competitors.

Buyers knew “little or practically nothing about digital photography,  in line with the 1991 survey in Price cut Merchandiser. Its lack of educational advertising remaining customers at night, as far as the difference between goods available. Since many unfounded customers basically buy centered off of cost alone, Kodak needs to inform customers for what reason they should spend the high grade price, and what rewards come along with having to pay that premium. No various other film companies were teaching consumers regarding value and benefits, thus Kodak had an opportunity to monetize on the deficiency of knowledge thereof. By teaching consumers, that they

Kodak six would understand their film needs, as well as the film’s rewards. Simultaneously, they can also acquaint consumers with all the value with their product, when compared with others. Because of this, Kodak will create even more brand dedication. Moreover, in the case study, we could told that Kodak provided three types of films: Gold Plus, Royal Rare metal, and Funtime. To the average consumer, Platinum Plus and Royal Platinum are far too similar in name, and give off the impression that they are of the identical quality. Consumers were turning into confused due to the similarity between these two labels.

By instructing the customers about usana products, consumers will begin to be familiar with value of Kodak’s film relative to opponents, and the natural differences among its products. Yet , if this kind of solution were implemented, the possibilities of making a sizable impact on its market share can be minimal if perhaps implemented on its own. By itself, it will not help repair Kodak’s decline in sales, inventory prices, and market share (because of its inability to adapt to industry trends). Permit aside, this could not talk about the problem of getting been unadaptive, at its primary.

Educating buyers would likely simply work best once paired with another alternative remedy. Alternative Option 3 It had been ten years just before Kodak taken care of immediately the Fuji’s sponsorship of the Olympic Games. Evidently, Kodak should have had a speedy response to this threat. Due to their lack of increased and overconfident mindset, Kodak lost a huge amount with their market. Kodak should have recognized that technology would advance sooner rather than later. Instead of only focusing on repositioning all their film, they must have also tried to advance the technology of their cameras.

The key to a powerful business is focusing on this current product, while spending time on researching and developing the near future product. Kodak executives really should have asked themselves, “What do we do to get ahead available in the market?  Simply because the main problem with Kodak was its inability to anticipate and adjust to future marketplace trends and developments, it may spend more time, efforts, and money on right product development. This kind of late response resulted in an instant loss of market share. Had Kodak responded to this kind of with more immediacy, its business would not include dropped so significantly.

To stop market damage in the future, Kodak should spend more time and money upon properly developing “cash cow products. Before the development of Funtime, the products Kodak 8 inside Kodak’s camera film collection were deemed cash deer. Due to negative market rumors, the company intended on creating another funds cow, about maintain its business. However , got the company spent more time in researching the camera film industry, it may have noticed that developing another cash cow product was not intelligent.

Researching the market is extremely important in knowing what subsequent steps a firm should take, and the way to create a tactical business plan. Rather than Kodak’s management asking themselves “What can we do to support our market share?  they have to have asked themselves “What can we do to succeed in the market?  Kodak’s approach was to improve its existing products as stars, and develop a new product (Funtime) being a cash cow. Accordingly, the star items (Gold As well as and Regal Gold) will be funded and, ultimately, further more promoted.

In asking the wrong questions, Kodak forged a unique demise: Funtime became a question mark product, liquidating earnings made by the current cash cows. By spending more time about analyzing current trends and advancing solutions, Kodak may develop goods that would make it recover misplaced market share and turn into a ruling force in the industry. The largest disadvantage in implementing this kind of, however , is the risk of product failure. Kodak’s executives will need to make informed decisions relating to whether this kind of developmental dangers are well worth product inability. Alternative Solution 4

As mentioned in the case examine, Funtime film would be presented “only 2 times a year by offpeak film use times. Kodak puzzled its clients in regards to the value of their product. Inside the eyes in the consumers, offering a different product only in certain times in the year, using a lower price, brought down the worth associated with Kodak film. The situation mentions that Kodak’s “stock had dropped 8% in value about rumors of the price cut upon film. In the event rumors of your price cut helped bring down its stock prices, then adding a lower top quality product, just like Funtime, might also bring down company inventory prices.

In analyzing Kodak’s products using a BCG Matrix (see Appendix B), Funtime could be considered as a question indicate, whereas every of it is other goods were cash cows. The marketplace share for lower top quality film had not been growing and did not create much cash. Often times, doggie products must be divested. Kodak should have quickly determined whether the Funtime Film Kodak on the lookout for would develop into a cash cow or dog. Because Kodak was only selling this product during the away seasons, Funtime could by no means become a funds cow.

Although developing Funtime would have been a superb solution offered normal situations, developing a new lower top quality product around negative industry rumors was obviously a risky approach. Other companies, such as Fuji and Polaroid, got dog products, and had been fighting for being cash cow products. To maintain the market talk about it previously has, and since the Funtime product is already developed, nevertheless, Kodak ought to phase out its production. This would switch the product to a dog, and over time, would be fully liquidated. Some not far off cons with this answer would be the costs incurred via holding inventory and phasing out an item.

This would even more cut in to company profits, making it more challenging to return coming from a decline in inventory price. Alternative Solution your five We believe that the combination of Option Solutions 2 and a few would be a highly effective solution pertaining to Kodak. Education will make clear the products’ values and benefits, while simultaneously preserving its extraordinary brand photo. By instructing customers and anticipating future market styles, not only is Kodak able to retain the loyal clients, but absolutely position themselves in the minds of non-Kodak-loyal film consumers, as well.

This kind of, however , just speaks to part of the main problem. Appropriately, this education needs to be helped by appropriate market evaluation, so that Kodak is able to foresee market styles, and is in a position to react consequently. The company must focus evenly on the present and the future. By using this two-pronged procedure, between education and correct R&D, the business is able to educate consumers in the market intended for film, and also, determine how to be ahead of the competition. Proposed Remedy In direct reference to Kodak’s main problem (not foreseeing and adapting to

market changes), we extremely suggest that Kodak choose Option Solution your five: spend more time instructing customers and communicating the significance of Kodak’s items, as well as investment more efforts in right product development, helped by successful market research. By educating customers, Kodak is able to both equally lock-in the loyalty of current customers, sustain it is competitive benefit, and find further ways to catch the attention of more new customers. Moreover, investment its time Kodak twelve and money on right product development and analysis will allow Kodak to grow within the developing marketplace.

As a result, Kodak would be able to develop a star merchandise, while maintaining several cash bovine. Implementation Merchandise In regards to the product life cycle, Kodak’s current item Gold Additionally, exists in the maturity stage and their major objective here is to defend and regain business. To do this, Kodak needs to redevelop an existing series that will appeal to a wider audience of photographers. We intend to introduce Royal Gold to change the current film, Ektar, in the high-end portion.

At the same time we intend to propose to keep our high grade product, Precious metal Plus, in which it’s currently at at the center segment and over the course of a year, as we want to phase this into the low-end of the central segment, and make the cost competitive with economy brands. This is partly because the majority of consumers usually do not buy all the from the midsection segment. Therefore , we want to enter in a more profitable market section. By phasing Gold As well as into the lower end, we can compete in the two high and low-end marketplace.

However , we cannot begin this by simply dropping the price of Gold As well as immediately. Due to the fact doing so, in the eye on the buyer, will cause confusion and potentially reduce brand equity. Instead, we will certainly drop rates once or twice per month over the course of a year. This way, the two products will probably be positioned better, in that we are competitive in both areas. Royal Gold will be aiimed at a broader customer base. Will probably be targeted to pros and significant amateurs, as well as any digital photographer seeking film for “special occasions, since referenced in case study.

Noble Gold can produce a crisper image and overall a much better quality picture, thus appealing to customers who also prefer to possess options in what they do with their photos. All those wishing to probably enlarge the photo could have a done product that is certainly so sharp they will have the peace of mind in knowing investment decision you won’t jeopardize the integrity with the picture. Regal Gold will be available for purchase in many different forms. To ensure that Kodak being profitable with this new product it will need to be sold in person packages, as well as packs of three and/or six in order to give clients a variety in selection.

Kodak 11 Place Royal Rare metal and Platinum Plus will probably be sold in places that other Kodak products are being sold. There are numerous retail outlets that carry Kodak products and so purchasing the new line will not be difficult or hard to find. The distribution will probably be allocated in amounts that could maximize success and will be attracting customers who also are picky in in which they acquire film. Our main circulation for Hoheitsvoll Gold and Gold Additionally will be to low cost and department stores, about 34%; the reduced decline in pricing are not as visible in such a store.

Next is to drug retailers who commonly do not provide as many discounts unless a client is component to their benefits program, regarding 25% will probably be distributed to such. Camera shops will get about 15% of the division, as this will likely attract the client base that Gold As well as targets, all those photographers seeking a more specialist picture. It truly is in the independently owned shops that one rolls of film will be purchased more often. The other 26% will probably be allocated to supermarkets and from suppliers clubs. We predict earnings will be maximized greatly originating from these institutions, especially in product sales of the three/six value packages.

It would be wise of Kodak to track the earnings where the film is sent out within the first few months following repricing Rare metal Plus, determine consumer demand and develop and deliver enough film in order to fulfill the market. Price While looking to implement a great economy manufacturer, Kodak failed when liberating Funtime film. The consumer had not been educated in the differentiation involving the superpremium Royal Gold, high quality Gold Plus, and economic system Funtime. Even though the market had been looking for a merchandise from Kodak that would be launched in the economy brand, Funtime was unsuccessful.

Through Funtime from the shelves, the economy portion of the Kodak marketplace is unavailable. Rare metal Plus is definitely Kodak’s current lowest label of film, however offers top quality over competitive economy brands. Due to the levels in the product life cycle, Precious metal Plus’ cost will naturally lower. Gold As well as has already knowledgeable its peak times of product sales during the introduction and expansion stages. Now that Gold As well as has been available for a while, it is currently in the maturity stage of its existence cycle, while sales include begun to stabilize. For a product to still achieve the Kodak 12

maturity stage, the item must stand out among rivals. Implementing a gradual value decrease can slowly reduce Gold Additionally into the economic system level rate without adding an entire fresh Kodak line. Eventually, a 15% discounted would give Platinum Plus a selling price of $2. 96, money. 05 more than Fujicolor Extremely G and Konice Extremely SR economy brands. Even now allowing Kodak to have a distinguished brand picture over opponents in the economy manufacturer, this would place Gold In addition as a premium brand competitive with opponents of the economic climate level. Mailing coupons to customers is a sure way to help Kodak gain back business in the decreasing market.

Discount codes create manufacturer recognition and make clients feel like they, personally, happen to be receiving a good deal. Because understanding is reality, it is important for Kodak to put its company as a merchandise of high value. Instead of substantially slashing prices, Kodak’s steady price decrease, along with coupons, can help gain back the industry. Making discount coupons available to customers helps Kodak keep all their value. However, Royal Precious metal is still inside the growth level due to the replacement of Kodak’s past superpremium film, Ektar.

When Kodak implements Royal Platinum into the marketplace, replacing Ektar, Royal Gold’s price is 20% lower than the previously existing Ektar, at $4. 19. In the superpremium market, Fujicolor Reala is selling for $4. 69, a money. 42 enhance over Kodak Ektar. By simply gradually reducing the price of Hoheitsvoll Gold, overtime, it will eventually take the place of Gold Plus’ previous placement. In 1993, the high quality brand, Gold Plus bought at $3. forty-nine, competing additionally price because Agfacolor XRG. “Gold As well as price was standard of the industry. Rare metal Plus no more has the power of setting the retail price due to the deficiency of market share and position inside the product life circuit.

Instead of allowing for Gold In addition to completely reduce from the market, diffusing this into the economic climate tier will still give Gold And also a competitive edge. Promotion To be able to regain business, it is important intended for Kodak in promoting the benefits of Noble Gold and Gold Additionally film. A simple picture can be quality of film; along with educating through commercials, Kodak will ensure the customer knows exactly what to look for in film. Sending out discount coupons is another great form of promoting. Promotion will assist Kodak educate, along with create manufacturer recognition. In return, customers will certainly purchase Kodak film and prevent post-purchase dissonance.

By releasing an advertising campaign and Kodak 13 focusing the long term quality of Kodak, and educating the customer on distinctions between each product, buyers will be interested in the film best suited for their situation. Kodak may gain a larger market share by simply informing the consumer what they are getting from purchasing Kodak film before even entering your local store. This advertising campaign, done through commercials, stresses the benefits of ordering each Kodak product. While Royal Precious metal is fresh to the market, even more advertising should be focused to teach consumers about the product.

Devote 60% in the advertising budget to Royal Platinum and 40% to Rare metal Plus, allowing for Royal Precious metal more assets to takeoff as a cool product. Pinpointing the idea that the average photo taker will take a picture like a professional, without being targeted to professionals. A commercial symbolizing Royal Precious metal as well as Rare metal Plus is essential to show the perk of each product. The innovation of Royal Gold coming from Ektar, which was actually targeted to specialists, adds distress to the typical photographer, if, perhaps the consumer has to be a professional to purchase the product.

By causing it obvious to the marketplace that Hoheitsvoll Gold can be targeted to the consumer wishing to catch the “special moments, the average consumer is often more drawn to the item. Gold Additionally advertisement is going to focus on the cost of everyday top quality film. Any time you take a photo, Gold As well as is there for you, always dependable in any scenario. In a Kodak commercial, Noble Gold is a film used to capture the special initial moments of babies being born. Gold Additionally is the dependable film pertaining to irresistible times thereafter when the baby is consistently photographed.

As a result of consumers staying uneducated inside the film market, the general doubt of purchasing film will come via being unaware of the benefits every film supplies. Educating buyers, promoting advantages of Kodak and showing the attributes crucial in the Precious metal Plus and also the Royal Precious metal film will lead buyers to the accurate product. While using correct marketing strategy, the training will be fitted to the target market, resulting in a happy consumer.


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Topic: Market share, Precious metal, Rare metal,

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Published: 02.17.20

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