Introduction 1What does philosophy mean? -Everyone has a idea -We have ideas with regards to things, persons, the meaning of life, loss of life, God, precisely what is good and bad. -We may have certain thinking to life, particular ways of looking at things. -For example: -I am an optimist. I can always visit a positive part to most disappointed situations. -I don’t believe in worrying excessive. I think regarding today. The next day can take care of itself. -Although an individual declare this being his viewpoint and rightly so.
Nevertheless this is not philosophy as a self-discipline. It is also broad, obscure, superficial, impersonal and ambiguous.
It does not adequately describe the effort of a thinker. -We have to define idea more specifically. 2The word “philosophy. -The Term “Philosophy. -Philia (love) & Sophia (wisdom) = the love of wisdom. 3Definitions of philosophy a. The study of the nature and that means of the world and of man life On the web Oxford Advanced Learner’s Book. b. Idea is a logical attempt to glance at the world as a whole.
4What does idea seek to do? -Philosophy seeks to examine primary questions regarding the whole world and about themselves with the hope of coming up with regular principles by which we can appreciate and live.
5Human creatures have always searched for answers to certain primary questions ” What are these kinds of fundamental questions? -What makes an action publish or incorrect? -What is usually my purpose in the world? -What is real truth? -What constitutes a good your life? -Is God important in our lives? -Where does understanding come from and how do we understand that our understanding is true. -What is the romantic relationship between mind and body? 6Why do we need beliefs? Why do we want philosophy once we have research and technology? -We have got advanced a great deal in research and technology -We stay in cities, we certainly have conquered the environment and have embarked into space?
-Communication is so developed that distance will no longer matters -We have enormous power above nature -We are able to develop more services and goods than ever before -So, why do we even now need beliefs? 7Yet all of these advances cause us being disturbed and anxious -There is a risk that the extremely technology we certainly have developed may destroy all of us. -For case nuclear technology. -We are most often unable to cope with the problems of war, starvation, terror, flow of money, pollution, the threatened termination of creatures, exploitation and oppression from the weak. -Knowledge and ideals appear to be single.
-This is definitely where idea comes in. It can help us to measure our lives because individuals and groups. -Philosophy may not be in a position to provide methods to all the world’s problems. But it really helps to take a look at issues plainly, consider choices and help us to make knowledgeable decisions. -With poor, incomplete and superficial reasoning all of us cannot build an educated society -If we are struggling to distinguish between valid and unacceptable reasoning, then simply we become victims of persuasive orators, cult market leaders and unscrupulous political market leaders. -Philosophy will help us to determine more deeply and clearly into an issue.
It will help us to question traditional and outdate beliefs to ensure that we can generate informed selections -Knowledge of ethical systems help all of us to live moral lives on the personal and communitarian level. -Knowledge of what comprises beauty assists us to understand and esteem differences in specific and cultural concepts of beauty and art. -Being able to think critically will help us to be familiar with any reasonless and oppressive beliefs in religion. 8The traditional sections of viewpoint. a. Reasoning b. Metaphysics c. Epistemology d. Worth Theory COMMON SENSE aLogic.
-The systematic study of guidelines to distinguish or recognize very good arguments via bad. -In an argument, organizations will give other views. -How do we understand which debate is good and which is not good. -Logic helps us to do this by providing rules to recognize proper argument via wrong disagreement. -It is concerned with assessments to find out which in turn arguments happen to be valid. -Logic runs through all the other twigs of beliefs. METAPHYSICS -bMetaphysics The study of the size of being and of the world. -It is concerned with all the fundamental character of all actuality, both noticeable and hidden.
-It demands what the truth is, why it can be, and how we are able to understand it. Ontology That part of metaphysics that studies being or existence. EPISTEMOLOGY cEpistemology The study of the resources, nature and validity expertise. -It handles issues just like: -What are definitely the sources of knowledge? (Origin of knowledge) -Where does genuine knowledge come from? -How can we know? -What is the mother nature of knowledge? (Appearance and reality) -Is right now there a real world outside the brain? -If so , can we know it? -Is the knowledge valid? (Truth/Verification) -How do we identify truth by error?
Two traditional schools of thought have sought to answer the questions over: -Rationalism -Human reason exclusively can find the basic principles from the universe -Empiricism -All expertise ultimately originates from sense experience, and therefore each of our knowledge is restricted to what can be experienced. There is also a relationship among metaphysics and epistemology. The understanding of truth (metaphysics) depends on our knowledge of what can be known (epistemology). Our theory of knowledge (epistemology) depends on how we understand ourself in relation to the whole of fact (metaphysics).
BENEFIT THEORY dValue Theory The branch of philosophy that studies values. -It can be subdivided into ethics, aesthetics, and social and political viewpoint. iethics: is involved with morality; right or wrong tendencies. -the 3 areas of integrity are: detailed, normative and metaethics. -descriptive ethics (what is ) identifies purposes, desire and intentions of human conduct and serves. It identifies moral actions. -normative integrity (what need to be) proposes the principles through which people ought to act and live. These are generally called ethical theories. ” “
-Meta-ethics(analysis) on how we understand, find out about, and whatever we mean whenever we talk about what is right and what is incorrect. It works with the meaning of key concepts, techniques of reasoning and analysis, and linguistic conventions It handles matters like what do meaningful terms indicate? What sort of mental state is involved in accepting a moral state ” a belief, an emotion? Perhaps there is any sort of moral reality or facts? Is ethical expertise attainable? In the event so , how? In fact , sketching the conceptual distinction between Metaethics, Normative Ethics, and Applied Integrity is alone a “metaethical analysis.
ii. Aestheticsis concerned with the idea of fine art and beauty. -Many philosophical problems in aesthetics entail critical conclusions.? -It works with concepts of concepts of beauty. Can be beauty subjective or target? iii. Social and personal philosophyisconcerned with value decision concerning culture, the state plus the individual’s relation to these institutions -It relates to issues just like -Why should individuals live in society? -What should be the cultural ideals of liberty, privileges, justice, equal rights and responsibility -Why will need to anyone abide by any govt?
-Why will need to some individuals or groups have political electric power over others -Who needs to have political electricity over other folks? -What if the scope of political electricity be? -What are the goals of government? Glossary 1philosophyphilia (love) + Sophia (wisdom) = the love of wisdom 2logicThe systematic research of guidelines to distinguish or perhaps recognize very good arguments coming from bad 3metaphysicsThe study from the nature of being and of the world 4epistemologyThe analyze of the sources, nature and validity of knowledge 5value theoryThe branch of idea that research values.
It can be subdivided into ethics, looks, and cultural and political philosophy. 6rationalismHuman reason exclusively can uncover the basic principles with the universe 7empiricismAll knowledge finally comes from perception experience, and so our know-how is limited about what can be knowledgeable 8aesthetics Is involved with the theory of skill and magnificence.
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