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The Impact in the Cuban Trade Embargo By simply: Natalie Bell 2/25/09 [pic] International Business Law BLAW 4320 [pic] Cuba, the largest island land in the Caribbean just ninety miles from the coast of Florida, skilled many difficult struggles through its extensive history. It was the last major Spanish colony to gain self-reliance, following a prolonged struggle that was commenced in 1868. It was in 1898 if the U.

S i9000. intervened during the Spanish-American Warfare that it finally overthrew The spanish language rule. The Treaty of Paris established Cuban freedom, which was awarded in 1902 after a three-year transition period.

The United States and Cuba concluded a Treaty of Contact in 1934, which, among other things, continued the 1903 contracts that rented the Guantanamo Bay nautico base towards the United States (CIA World Factbook). In the time before late 1950s, the United States acquired maintained good ties with Cuba. Metric scale system had many different business purchases there, and the country was obviously a special place for vacationers from around the globe. Since the land of the U. S. -supported dictatorship of Fulgencio Batista in 1959, it was Fidel Castro who has largely led Barrica throughout the years.

It was in Febuary nineteen, 2008 when ever Fidel Castro finally ceded power to his brother Raul Castro. Because the majority of Cubans were given birth to after the 1959 revolution, almost all of the Cuban people have known zero other leader. President Fidel Castro outlasted no less than nine American presidents seeing that he took power in the 50s (Castro: Profile). Relations involving the United States and Cuba damaged rapidly because Fidel Castro and the Cuban regime shifted toward the acceptance in the one-party communist system. Tanque seized the assets of American citizens and U. S i9000. irms including farms, industrial facilities, hotels, bank accounts, and property without reimbursement. It was finally on Apr 16, 1961 when Fidel Castro announced Cuba a socialist state. Cuba’s Communism revolution, with Soviet support, was taken to other countries throughout Latina America and Africa during the 1960s, 1971s, and 1980s. Castro maintained close relationships with the Soviet Union and worked along with the desired goals of Soviet communism simply by funding and provoking chaotic rebellious actions, as well as using military treatment in other countries, until the fall in the U.

T. S. Ur. in 1991 (Castro: Profile). Reacting, the United States made an rintangan on Barrica in March 1960, and, broke diplomatic relations about January several, 1961. This kind of began the over forty-year period of pressure between the U. S. and Cuba, you start with President Kennedy’s failed These types of of Swines invasion in 1963 and the Cuban Missile Crises (CIA World Factbook). Since 61, Cuba described many troubles as a result of the U. S. bar and the embargo had a great effect on equally nations.

It absolutely was in 1963 that the Usa passed the Cuban Property Control Regulations, under the authority of the Trading with the Enemy Act. The Act was enacted in 1917 to restrict trade with countries which have been hostile for the United States. Legislation gives the Leader the power to oversee or perhaps restrict any trade between the U. S i9000. and its foes in times of battle. The purpose of legislation was to isolate Cuba financially and politically. It prohibited all trade and financial transactions among Cuba plus the U. H., and froze all U. S. kept assets from the Cuban authorities and of non-public Cuban residents. It also prohibited almost all go Cuba simply by researchers, student groups, press, athletes, and others traveling to see immediate members of the family (Schaffer 268). After the show up of the Soviet Union in the early 1990’s, the U. S. Our elected representatives wanted to pressure Cuba to get democratic alter. First in 1992, the U. S i9000. Congress permitted the Cuban Democracy Act, restricting People in the usa from visiting the island, banning family remittances, and barring foreign subsidiaries of U. S. ompanies from using the services of Cuba. Pursuing the few years later on, on 03 12, 1996, President Bill Clinton fixed the Cuban Liberty and Democratic Unification Act, also called the Helms-Burton Act. Following this law was signed, this further toughened the Cuban sanctions. This imposed fees and penalties on foreign companies working in Tanque, it allowed U. S. citizens arranging lawsuits against foreign buyers who made use of the American-owned property that was seized after 1959 by the Cuban government, and it denied an admittance visa in to the U. T. to such foreign investors.

It was an extremely controversial because this included a large number of Mexican, Canadian, and Western businessmen who have did organization in Barrica (268). The passage with the Helm-Burton Work caused a worldwide protest, generally in South america, Canada, and the European Union, who have argued the fact that Helm-Burton Work violated international law. A protest was filed with all the World Trade Organization by European Union, but was suspended when the Clinton Supervision reassured that the law intended for visa restrictions under Title III with the Helm-Burton Take action would not end up being enforced against citizens in third world countries.

The Take action calls for the trade calamit� between the U. S. and Cuba to finish as soon as Tanque agrees to experience a democratically chosen government, abide by human legal rights conventions, unwraps its prisons to international inspection, results Cuban citizenship to Cuban exiles residing in the U. S., besides making progress in returning expropriated property to its rightful owners (268). Today, there are numerous laws, rules, and polices that produced from the U. S. calamit� against Cuba. Presently, many commercial imports from Barrica are unlawful by law although remain listed under the Trade Sanctions Change and Export Enhancement Act of 2k (TSRA).

Within the Act, someone buy of particular items, which include medicine and medical items, and agricultural commodities have already been approved intended for export simply by specific regulations. According to the Work, “The Section of the Treasury is dependable in providing licenses that are used to export these merchandise on a case-by-case scenario and authorizing Cuban travel-related deals that are simply relating to marketing, sales discussion, accompanied delivery, and servicing of export products and re-exports that also must can be found in line while using licensing policy of the Section of Commerce” (U.

You read ‘Impact of Cuban Trade Embargo’ in category ‘Papers’ H.

Treasury Department). The only areas in which U. S. people may sell and service products to Cuba contain agricultural goods, medicine, and medical gadgets. The Treasury Department can is also manage to consider demands for specific licenses to get humanitarian travel and leisure, educational exchanges (that are in least twelve weeks in length), and religious actions by individuals or groups that are connected with a religious business. However , virtually any U. T. citizen or perhaps corporation that is subject to U. S. regulation and partcipates in any travel-related transaction in Cuba violates the rules.

The Action specifically declares that, “The Cuban Resources Control Restrictions affects most U. S i9000. citizens and permanent residents wherever they are really located, all people and organizations physically in the United States, and all branches and subsidiaries of U. S. companies throughout the world” (U. S i9000. Treasury Department). If the polices are not followed, then it can result in the two civil penalties and lawbreaker prosecution upon return to the United States (U. S. Treasury Department). Today, planing a trip to Cuba has many guidelines and laws that make visiting the Tanque very complicated.

In 2004, President Bush’s Commission for Assistance to a Free Cuba put a further lowering on the constraints on friends and family visits to Cuba. Sessions by Cuban Americans to family in Cuba will be permitted only once every 3 years instead of when every year. Not any humanitarian exceptions are given if there is any of a family illness or crisis going on in Cuba. Visits are restricted to two weeks and totally limited to immediate family because defined by U. T. Department of Treasury’s Business office of Foreign Assets Control (OFAC), which will eliminates the justification to visit friends, aunts, future uncles, nephews, nieces, or more distant relatives (LAWG).

Only if a traveler will get a license, then the valid passport will be required for entry in Cuba. The Cuban federal government requires that travelers get their visas before they will arrive for the country. In the event there are tries to enter or perhaps exit Barrica illegally, or perhaps there is in just about any kind of assist in helping Cuban nationals or perhaps others escape Cuba in that case punishment is usually served by simply stiff imprisonment terms. Coming into Cuban area, territorial seas or airspace, which include getting within 12 miles with the Cuban coast, without any previous permission from your Cuban authorities may result in arrest or other observance actions by simply Cuban specialists.

According to the U. S. Division of State, most immigration violators happen to be subject to jail terms that range from several years intended for illegal entry or get out of to as much as 30 years for many cases of assisting Cuban migrants to try to leave Barrica illegally (U. S. Division of State). Family remittances or cash sent to Tanque also have specific rules and regulations that must be followed by those residing underneath U. T. law. Based on the U. S i9000. Department of State, “U. S. ersons aged 18 or old may give money to members of the remitter’s immediate family in Cuba up to $300 per household in just about any consecutive three-month period, regardless of the number of members of the remitter’s immediate relatives residing in that household. ” The law also states that no person in the household can be quite a prohibited recognized of the Authorities of Tanque or a forbidden member of the Cuban Communism Party (U. S. Section of State). Other regulations that are the part of the on going U. S i9000. embargo while using Cuban authorities involves the use of money in Cuba that U.

S. travelers are restricted to spend during their stay in Emborrachar. U. H. people visiting Cuba to check out their family members or traveling for additional purposes can easily spend only $50 daily on non-transportation-related expense in Cuba, or more to an added $50 every trip to purchase transportation-related expenditures in Cuba. However , professionals such as journalists, photographers, or any other kind of licensed travellers may use additional money for professions which might be directly linked to what they require in order to accomplish their function (U. S i9000. Department of State).

It is also interesting to be aware of that U. S. individuals and long term resident extraterrestrials are not allowed from using their very own credit cards, personal checks, or travelers’ checks that are drawn from U. S i9000. banks in Cuba. U. S. credit card companies do not accept any kind of discount vouchers from Emborrachar, and, as well, Cuban retailers, hotels and other places of business do not accept virtually any types of U. S i9000. credit cards (U. S. Section of State). Today, the U. S i9000. Cuban retenci�n has become one of the most controversial concerns upon various countries all over the world.

There have been various advocating from here on out of the current policies towards Cuba for some time now. The sanction has consistently been condemned and identified against by almost all international locations throughout the world. To get the 16th consecutive season, the U. N. Standard Assembly suggested that the U. S. concluded the embargo. In 2006, an overall total of 183 member nations around the world of the U. N referred to as on the U. S. to finish the calamit� with Tanque (Sierra). In 2007, the 192-member General Assembly exceeded the assess by 184 votes to four, with one abstention (U. S. Urged).

Relating to Remy Herrera, “The normative content of this embargo and its rules, which the U. S. hopes to inflict on the foreign community having its unilateral sanctions is a violation of the spirit and page of the Un Charter associated with the Organization of yankee States, along with the very basic principles of intercontinental law” (Herrera). This increased extension of the territorial legal system of the U. S., Herrera adds, “Is contrary to the principle of nationwide sovereignty and that of nonintervention in the interior choices of another state, s i9000 recognized in the jurisprudence in the International Court of Justice” (Herrera). In accordance to Richard Schaffer, even the Vatican protested Helms-Burton, proclaiming that it improved economic suffering of the Cuban People. Various trade organizations have also asserted against the law because they thought that financial engagement truly would encourage freedom in totalitarian countries. The U. S. companies that are hoping to engage in the business activities in Cuba likewise seek a great ending for the U. T. trade sanctions (Schaffer 269). According to U. S.

Congresswoman Nancy Pelosi, many feel that the lifting of the travel constraints to Emborrachar, family remittances, and transact exchange are essential and are some of the most important issues in the insurance plan changing procedure that the U. S. has to undergo in order to have better contact with Tanque (Pelosi). Actually, surveys from the American public opinion display that the great majority of Americans prefer ending calamit� as well, and recognizing the federal government of Tanque (Schaffer 269). According into a recent vote from UNITED STATES Today that took place among February 21- 24, 2008, 61% of two, 021 adults nationwide favored re-establishing U.

S. diplomatic relations with Cuba, 29% opposed, and 10% from the people were not sure (PollingReport). More than Forty-five a lot of communism have left the island country an economic destroy and the U. S. embargo had various diverse results on Tanque. According to a BusinessWeek content by Geri Smith, “The Cuban authorities has constantly referred to the embargo like a ‘blockade, ‘ a word with a more threatening tone than ’embargo'” (Smith). Cuba went through many problems as the consequence of the U. S. embargo since 1961 and suffered much more since the collapse with the Soviet Union in 1991.

The nation faced a severe economic depression, which genuinely caused the Cubans’ living standards to significantly land. The disappearance of Soviet aid following the collapse in the USSR pressured the government to introduce small rationing of one’s, food, and consumer items, as well as the revulsion of the past Soviet total annual subsidies that had been worth $4 billion to $6 billion (Country Profile: Cuba). After that, it has used action with limited reforms in order to boost enterprise efficiency and boost some of their economic problems which included their significant shortages of food and goods.

Due to the economic problems and household inefficiencies that Cuba faced during the 1990’s, President Castro allowed a few steps towards a more market-oriented system. In 1993, the U. S. money was acknowledged by Tanque and permitted to circulate throughout the nation. Due to their lack of simple necessities and few customer goods, Cuba’s economy persisted with the help of Canadian, European and Latin American investments. Essentially for Emborrachar, the nation as well developed better relations with China and Venezuela.

China and tiawan invested in Cuba’s nickel sector and offered Cuba help in the form of trade credit rating, technology, and investment capital although Venezuela offered supply to cheap gasoline (Smith). Seeing that late 2000, Venezuela has been supplying about 100, 500 barrels daily of petroleum products. Cuba has been paying for this oil with the providers of Cuban personnel in Venezuela, including 20, 1000 medical professionals (CIA WorldFactbook). After market factors improved, in 2004 the U. S. dollar ventures in Cuba were suspended and a 10% tax was made on the dollar-peso conversions. According to the CIA Universe Factbook, Cuban exports total $3. thirty-one billion and their major exports include Sugar, nickel, smoking cigarettes, fish, medical products, citrus fruit, and caffeine partners. The countries that Cuba primarily exports to feature the Netherlands (21. 8%), Canada (21. 6%), China (18. 7%), The country (5. 9%) (CIA WorldFactbook). On the other hand, Cuban imports have totaled $12. 86 billion and comprise mainly of petroleum, foodstuff, machinery and equipment, and chemicals. The countries that Cuba primarily imports coming from include Venezuela (26. 6%), China (15. 6%), The country of spain (9. 8%), Germany (6. 4%), Canada (5. 6%), Italy (4. 4%, ) the U. S. (4. 3%), and Brazil (4. %) (CIA WorldFactobook) Today, Cuba provides two currencies in blood circulation, which include the Cuban sobrecarga (CUP) as well as the convertible sobrecarga (CUC). The Cuban sobrecarga (CUP) can be specifically for the Cubans, even though the convertible sobrecarga (CUC) is definitely strictly intended for tourists and foreign business men. According into a BBC News story, newspaper article by Michael jordan Voss, “The average Cuban salary of 400 pesos a month is worth about $16, yet almost everything available in the shops needs to be paid for inside the convertible pesos (CUC’s)” (Voss). “Why gets the economy moved to convertible pesos when staff are paid out in the countrywide currency? ” declared among the students inside the article. You have to work for two days just to purchase a toothbrush” (Voss). The situation with the dual currency is among the biggest problems that in a negative way influences the Cuban overall economy. Cuba confronts many struggles because of the financial problems through the entire country. A lot of the effects possess caused a rise in prostitution, problem, black marketeering and needy efforts to flee in search of a much better life (Country Profile: Cuba). Many Cubans had enough with the hardships and risk their lives to escape from your country. Countless numbers have attempted to escape throughout the sea within a waterborne exodus to Sarasota, but many have got drowned. Castro: Profile) Based on the BBC News story, newspaper article, Castro: Account of the Superb Survivor, “Even his very own daughter Alina Fernandez likes a life of exile as a dissident in New mexico to secret under her ‘despotic’ father” (Castro: Profile). According to the CIA World Simple fact Book, dubious migration to the U. S., using homemade rafts, peculiar smugglers, or air routes, is still a continuing problem. The U. T. Coast Protect seized a couple of, 864 people trying to cross the Straits of Florida in the year 06\ (CIA WorldFactbook). Cuba is fraudulent together with the UN’s leading human rights forum, over specific legal rights abuses.

The UN has insisted that Cuba allows for freedom of expression also to release jailed protesters that have protested resistant to the government (Country Profile: Cuba). The U. S. provides caused Emborrachar many economical damages because of the U. S. embargo. In accordance to U. S. congresswoman Nancy Pelosi, “The over-45-year US monetary, commercial and financial blockade of Barrica has translated into more than 89 billion dollars dollar deficits for the U. H. ” (Pelosi). According to the article, The Effects of the U. H. Embargo Against Cuba, the direct monetary losses for Cuba by the U. H. embargo might exceed 75 billion us dollars.

The injuries were approximated by determining amounts of Cuba’s potential income and pointless losses since the institution from the U. T. embargo in 1961. The embargo negatively influenced all of the industries in Cuba, which also directly enforced on the major driving pushes of the Cuban economy, which included tourism, overseas direct assets (FDI) and currency exchanges (Herrera). Tanque became very limited in having access to technologies and various resources because of the hurdles that were forced by the U . s. According to a Business Week article, “Trade and purchase open up economies to new ideas.

Mobile phones, the Internet, and other high-tech communication technologies happen to be detrimental to closed-minded bureaucracies” (Farrel). Since January, 2001, when ever food and agricultural goods were permitted to be exported to Tanque, over $2 billion us dollars worth of goods were gained by U. S. companies and shippers (LAWG). In line with the article, The Travel Industry’s Push to Unlock Emborrachar, loosening the restrictions may boost the U. S. economic climate in the long term by as much as $1. 6th billion yearly and generate as many as 23, 000 fresh jobs (Unlock Cuba). In this manner, Cuba has the potential for financial growth if the U. H. nds or even loosens their very own trade sanctions. This can likewise further ease the hardships and financial issues of poverty in Cuba. Associations between the United States and Cuba are hoping to improve in the foreseeable future, especially mainly because Fidel Castro retired his control over Tanque. Many hope that Cuba will be wide open for business which there may be signs of new beginnings of change on the economical front beneath Raul Castro (Smith). Some, however , are more skeptical in the idea. In respect to a the latest poll from USA Today that took place between Feb 21- twenty-four of 2008, only 37% of 2, 021 people experienced that the condition for people in Cuba would get better.

A majority of 51% believed that the circumstance for people in Cuba might stay the same, 6% felt that it would get even worse, and 6% felt they were unsure (PollingReport). Fortunately, Raul Castro features a series of reconstructs since overtaking as president from his brother Fidel in Feb . and has taken steps on improving specific services to get the Cuban public. The new leader began focusing on a few of the most-mentioned complications, such as indifferent public transportation and the low salary paid by government to private maqui berry farmers (Smith).

Based on the article, Cuban Leaders Prepare More Reconstructs, these reconstructs have also included the removal of a few restrictions within the purchase of power goods such as mobile phones, micro wave ovens and DVD players. According to the document, Cubans have already been reported to get 7, 500 new cellphone contracts in the 10 days considering that the restrictions had been eased. The country has also lifted a ban upon its persons staying in accommodations previously reserved for foreigners (Cuban Leaders). It will be interesting to see if more market-oriented steps will take place with the Raul Castro’s new regime. Another major issue that is to be crucial for most U.

S i9000. businesses as soon as the embargo leads to the future is definitely the growing involvement in the travel and leisure sector of Cuba. Relating to an article by Sucharita Mulpuru, People in america represent only a small part of the nearly 1 ) 2 , 000, 000 visitors whom come to Cuba every year, mainly from Canada, Italy, France, Indonesia, and The united kingdom (Mulpuru). Travel continues to inspire high expectations among a large number of investors. Inside the article, Enzo Alberto, the Canadian-Italian CEO of ICC, a major investor in the island’s Internet infrastructure states, “I believe that Cuba could be to America like Hk is to Asia, ” (Mulpuru).

Many countries pour nearly $2 billion into the economic system, outstripping earnings from glucose and other primary crops just like tobacco (Mulpuru). According to the content, A Warmer Local climate for Trade with Barrica, the sector argues the island nation is a potential source of necessary revenues that would be able to boost both the travel and leisure business plus the U. H. economy whilst opening to tourism and foreign expense in Tanque. As a result, this will likely also increase the economy plus the currency stores of Cuba. Unfortunately, all this potential to support both financial systems and many persons in the two nations will not likely end before the U. S i9000. rade embargo ends as well as the Cuban government loosens the stranglehold on the economy. It will probably be interesting to determine how the U. S. retenci�n will be afflicted with the guidelines of the future elected president in the U. S i9000. Of the three leading Usa president candidates, only Democratic challenger Senator Barack Obama provides stated that he would be willing to take a moment and consult with Raul Castro’s government, provided that human privileges are on the agenda. However, Senator Hillary Clinton explained said she would not do so until Emborrachar started to put into practice economic and political reforms, while Senator John McCain has stored President George W.

Bush’s policy and states that “talks will be off” right up until Cuba begins a “transition to a totally free and open society” and releases most political prisoners (Smith). In line with the Associated Press, the president candidates are expected to casually discuss the question of raising the bar during their campaign. According to their article, Five-decade U. S. Trade Bar with Tanque Expected to Outlive Fidel Castro, there is a lot of sensitivity within the issue, particularly in states with high foule of Cuban immigrants such as Florida (Associated Press). The entrepreneurs from the U. H. ave noticed their international competitors make the most of opportunities in Cuba. U. S. businesspersons can only expect that the trade and travelling restrictions will probably be lifted at some point, so that they can tap the potential markets in Barrica especially in the travel and farming sectors. This is very unlikely to happen soon due to ongoing conflicts between various in regards to the Cuban embargo. The effect of the Cuban embargo triggered many diverse effects intended for both countries, but with new policies and politicians which might be developing for future years, this account can be the end of an old era. Performs Cited ACN Cuban Information Agency. 2007, May 2). “Nancy Pelosi Says U. S. Blockade of Cuba Should be Elevated. ” Recovered April twenty four, 2008, by http://www. cubanews. ain. cu/2008/0425nancypelosi. htm Alomso, Cynthia C. “The Travel Industry’s Drive to Open Cuba. ” BusinessWeek. 27 August the year 2003 Associated Press. Five-decade U. S. Control Embargo with Cuba Anticipated to Outlast Fidel Castro. twenty February 2008. Retrieved upon April twenty-four, 2008 from http://www1. whdh. com/news/articles/national/BO73631 LABELLIS� BASSE CONSOMMATION News. (2008, February 19). “Castro: Account of the Wonderful Survivor”. Recovered April twenty-four, 2008 via http://news. bbc. co. k/2/hi/americas/244974. stm BBC News. (2008, April 12). “Cuban Leaders Plan Even more Reforms”. Gathered April 24, 2008, by http://news. basse consommation. co. uk/2/hi/americas/7343883. stm BASSE CONSOMMATION News. (2008, February 26). “Country Account: Cuba”. Gathered April 24, 2008 from http://news. labellis� basse consommation. co. uk/2/hi/americas/country_profiles/1203299. stm BASSE CONSOMMATION News. (2008, April 24). “Cubans Snapping Up Portable Phones”. Gathered April twenty four, 2008, via http://news. labellis� basse consommation. co. uk/2/hi/business/7364791. stm BBC News. (2007, October 30). “U. S. Urged to End Cuba Embargo”. Retrieved The spring 24, 2008, from http://www. bbc. company. k/caribbean/news/story/2007/10/071030_cubaun. shtml CIA Universe Factbook. Tanque. (nd). Recovered on 04 22, 2008 from https://www. cia. gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/cu. html Farrell, Christopher. “The Case Against Embargoes” BusinessWeek. 25 04 2005 Herrera, Remy. The consequence of the U. S. ‘Embargo’ Against Emborrachar. 7 March 2003. Recovered on 04 22, 08 from http://www. alternatives. ca/article876. html Latina America Functioning Group (LAWG). Top Ten Factors behind Changing U. S. Insurance plan Toward Barrica. (nd) Recovered on 04 22, 2008 from http://www. lawg. org/docs/new_member_packet. df Magnusson, Paul. “A Warmer Weather For Transact in Barrica. ” BusinessWeek. 16 Summer 2000 Mulpuru, Sucharita. “In Cuba, History’s Joy—and Curse. ” BusinessWeek. 3 February 2003. Pew Hispanic Center. Cubans in the Unite Says: A Profile. 25 August 06\. Retrieved via http://pewhispanic. org/files/factsheets/23. pdf Polling Report. Tanque. Retrieved upon April twenty two, 2008 from http://www. pollingreport. com/cuba. htm Plummer, Robert. “How Cubans Heal Their particular Economic Ills” BBC Media. 3 January 2007. Schaffer R., Earle B., , Agusti Farrenheit. (2005). Foreign Business Rules and Its Environment. Ohio: Thomson-Southwestern West. (6e).

Sierra, L. A. Economic Embargo Timeline. (nd). Retrieved on Apr 22, 08 from http://www. historyofcuba. com/history/funfacts/embargo. htm Smith, Geri. “Cuba Under the Different Castro? inch BusinessWeek. twenty four February 2008 Smith, Geri. “When Is going to Cuba Likely be operational for Business? inch BusinessWeek. twenty nine February 08 U. S. Department from the State. (http://www. state. gov). Retrieved upon April twenty-two, 2008. U. S. Office of the Treasury. “Cuba: The biggest launch of the century About The U. H. Embargo”. Retrieved April 22, 2008 via http://www. treas. gov/ofac Voss, Michael. “Stepping Into Big Brother’s Shoes or boots? ” BBC News. 24 February 2008

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