Research from Term Paper:
Freud as well as the existentialists are too pessimistic about human nature? Will be humanistic individuals closer to the facts, or too optimistic?
Relating to Freud, all desire is a form of displacement. 1st, the small boy wishes his mom. However , not able to realize this kind of desire due to societal events, he shifts the focus of his love to another girl and tries to become just like his father instead and discover a substitute mother/woman. Similarly, the young girl shifts her desire for a penis upon a male, which turns into her way of ‘having’ a penis. The two developmental trajectories result in the kid similarly never having the point he or she truly wants. Nevertheless , this form of repression is essential to prevent incest and repression of all kinds is required for man society to operate. For Freud, society is definitely an inescapable series of accommodement: the identity (and the ego, which usually satisfies the id’s desires) is always by war while using superego, which relegates individuals to a state of constant denial. To be in is to be neurotic or in a constant state of conflict. “The Id makes up 90% of who our company is. It is subconscious and therefore unknown to all of us, but it styles our conscious life and sometimes even dominates the Ego. We all then turn into neurotic” when the id is definitely denied (“Theories of human nature, ” n. d. ).
Existentialists similarly see people in a condition of conflict with their surroundings. Sartre notoriously stated that “existence precedes essence” (“Theories of being human, ” d. d. ). Rather than essentializing human nature, Sartre believed that human beings experienced the potential being free of restrictions, but that they had huge difficulty working out this flexibility. “The actuality of our liberty is good and bad – it creates anguish, it prospects us to self-deception even as we try to avoid our freedom. We must struggle against having existence determined by others – this is inauthentic” (“Theories of being human, ” n. d. ). In abgefahren contrast to Freud, Sartre sees exterior pressures and determination quite a bit less negative but as a threat to human being freedom. Individuals create limitations for themselves that hem in that freedom. These types of barriers simply exist within their own brain and are not essential.
Although Freud and Sartre have completely different views of human nature, equally see the majority of human beings because effectively incompatible with themselves and with society. Intended for Freud, all-natural desires are inevitably going to clash against