Excerpt from Exploration Paper:
Nursing Metaparadigms and Practice-Specific Concepts
Since Florence Nightingale, there have been many so-called grand theories of nursing advanced, and these grand hypotheses have been used by other breastfeeding theorists to conceptualize metaparadigms of practice that still influence specialized medical practice today. In addition , the central ideas of nursing jobs are person, nursing, environment and health have produced the basis for other breastfeeding theorists just like Jean Watson’s Philosophy and Science of Caring and Madeleine Leininger and her Cultural Variety and Universality Theory. This kind of paper supplies a review of the kind of literature relating to these issues, then a summary of the study and crucial findings with regards to nursing metaparadigms and practice-specific concepts inside the conclusion.
Review and Dialogue
My backdrop in nursing is in long term and residence care. In these capacities, I have had a volume of opportunities to apply the 4 metaparadigms of nursing because discussed further below.
The Four Metaparadigms
While creators differ with respect to specifics, a good definition offered by Masters (2012) states that, “A metaparadigm is the most global perspective of any discipline and acts as a great encapsulating product, or structure, within that the more constrained… structures develop” (p. 42). The conceptualization of a metaparadigm involves the identification of phenomena appealing to each self-control that are dealt with in a trend that is one of a kind to each (Master, 2012). There may be some nebulosity to metaparadigms, though, that transcend mere protocols or perspectives. In this regard, Masters emphasizes that, “The concepts and propositions that identify and interrelate these types of phenomena are even more subjective than those in the conceptual types. These are the concepts that comprise the metaparadigm in the discipline” (2012, p. 42).
The conceptual models that link and define the four metaparadigms of nursing concepts differ, but all four metaparadigm principles are aspects of each of the versions (Masters, 2012). In total, Masters notes that, “The central concepts of the willpower of medical are person, environment, health insurance and nursing” (p. 48). When each of the 4 metaparadigms is exclusive in some trend depending on the self-control that is engaged, with respect to nursing, Masters recommends that these several concepts of the metaparadigm of nursing happen to be: “The person receiving the breastfeeding, the environment inside which the person exits, the health – condition continuum within just which the person falls during the connection with the registered nurse, and, finally, nursing activities themselves” (p. 48).
It is necessary to note, although, that your most innovative and useful formal model of care based upon the four paradigms can be not an end-all in the development of professional specifications of proper care. For instance, relating to Ondrejka and Barnard (2011), “By itself, an official model of treatment is not going to produce improvement on the medical report greeting card, unless we have a continuous approach for nurses to own their practice and integrate an auto dvd unit of care that agrees with their values and is individual centered” (p. 142). Actually the important need for patient-centered and evidence-based practice is manufactured evident in the two practice-specific principles discussed further below.
Two Practice-Specific Ideas
Jean Watson’s Philosophy and Science of Caring. Watson’s theory retains that the overarching goal in the nursing occupation is to aid the attainment of a higher level of harmony in the mind – body – spirit triad (Masters, 2012). The theory likewise maintains that by getting this objective, it is possible to potentiate recovery and well being (see Table 1 below). In order to accomplish the Watsonian goal, nursing staff employ transpersonal care that is guided by carative factors and linked caristas techniques. In fact , Watson’s theory to get nursing practice is founded on 10 important carative elements. According to Masters, “As Watson’s work evolved, she renamed these types of carative elements into what she called clinical nächstenliebe processes. Menschenliebe means to enjoy, to appreciate, also to give special attention. It conveys the concept of love” (2012, s. 52).
The 10 nächstenliebe processes came up with by Watson are as follows:
1 . Practice of caring kindness and equanimity intended for oneself and also other;
2 . Becoming authentically present and enabling and keeping the deep belief program and very subjective life world of self plus the one being cared for;
a few. Cultivating one’s own religious practices; going beyond the ego home; deepening of self-awareness;
some. Developing and sustaining a helping – trusting, real caring relationship;
5. Being present to, and supportive of, the expression of positive and negative feelings as a reference to a more deeply spirit of oneself and the one getting cared for;
6th. Creatively applying oneself and ways of being aware of as part of the caring process and engagement in artistry of caring – healing methods;
7. Participating in a genuine instructing – learning experience in the context of the caring relationship, while attending to the whole person and very subjective meaning; trying to stay inside the other’s body of guide;
8. Creating a healing environment at all levels, subtle environment of energy and consciousness whereby wholeness, splendor, comfort, pride, and tranquility are potentiated;
9. Assisting with standard needs, with an intentional caring awareness; administering human care basics, which potentiate alignment with the mind – body – spirit, wholeness, and unanimity of being in all respects of care; attending to both embodied heart and innovating emergence;
15. Opening and attending to religious, mysterious, and unknown existential dimensions of life, loss of life, suffering; “allowing for a miracle” (Masters, 2012, pp. 52-53).
In addition , Watson describes the underlying clinical caritas processes as being the “core” of breastfeeding that has it is foundation inside the art of caring and philosophy and science (Masters, 2012). An interesting aspect of Watson’s theory can be her differentiation between the foregoing core of nursing practice with alleged “trim, inches which is used to describe the “practice setting, types of procedures, functional duties, clinical disease focus, technology, and methods of nursing. The lean, Watson talks about, is not really expendable, nonetheless it cannot be the center of professional nursing practice” (Masters, 2012, p. 53).
The metaparadigm concepts described in Watson’s philosophy and science of caring are set forth in Table 1 below.
Metaparadigm Concepts since Defined in Watson’s Viewpoint and Scientific research of Nurturing
This term is employed by Watson to describe a unity of mind-body-spirit/nature; put spirit.
Reciprocal transpersonal relationship in caring moments guided by simply carative factors and caristas processes.
Healing space and environment
A nonphysical enthusiastic environment; a vibrational field integral while using person the place that the nurse is not only in the environment but the nurse IS the environment (Watson, 08, p. 26).
Harmony, wholeness and ease and comfort.
Source: Made of figure in Masters, 2012, g. 52
Another prominent nursing jobs theorist whose work has been influential in shaping nursing practice in recent years is Madeleine Leininger and her Ethnic Diversity and Universality Theory which are discussed further listed below.
Madeleine Leininger’s Cultural Variety and Universality Theory. The main features of the Cultural Diversity and Universality Theory developed by Leininger happen to be as follows: Transcultural nursing can be described as substantive part of study and practice centered on comparative ethnical care (caring) values, beliefs, and methods of individuals or perhaps groups of related or several cultures while using goal of providing culture-specific and universal nursing treatment practices in promoting health or perhaps well-being or help people deal with unfavorable individual conditions, condition, or death in widely meaningful ways. (p. 58)
The definition from the metaparadigm of concepts of nursing identified by Leininger specifically included the need for the nurse to consider the delivery of skilled nursing attention into account because set forth in Table two below.
Metaparadigm Concepts as Defined in Leininger’s Theory
Human being, friends and family, group, community or institution
Activities directed toward supporting, supporting, or perhaps enabling with needs in ways that are consonant with the ethnic values, philosophy, and lifeways of the recipient of care.
This term means the totality of your event, circumstance, or knowledge that gives that means in human expressions, understanding, and interpersonal interactions in physical, ecological, sociopolitical and/or cultural options.
A state of health that is culturally defined, highly valued and practiced.
Source: Made of figure in Experts, 2012, g. 67
According to Leininger, there are 3 basic modalities that serve to guide nursing jobs judgments, decisions, and actions that can help the delivery of medical services which can be satisfying, meaningful and good for recipients (Masters, 2012). These three modes are as follows:
1 . Ethnic care preservation or maintenance. This term is used to describe supportive, assistive, facilitative, or enabling specialist interventions that facilitate improved clinical outcomes in cross-cultural settings. Additionally , this term is used to relate to activities and decisions that help people (a) preserve meaningful treatment values because of their well-being, (b) recover from disease, or (c) deal with a disability or death (Masters, 2012).
2 . Cultural proper care accommodation or perhaps negotiation. This term identifies those assistive, supportive, facilitative, or enabling professional activities and decisions that assist individuals of a specific culture or perhaps subculture adjust to or make a deal with other folks for important, beneficial, and congruent overall health outcomes.
3. Cultural attention repatterning or perhaps restructuring. This kind of term refers