Excerpt from Only the Literature Review chapter:
Bruner’s constructivist theory as well as the conceptual paradigms of Kolb’s Experiential Learning theory using the associated theories will be Kinesthetic and Embodied Learning. As also noted in the introductory section, the guiding research query for this examine was, “What are the career paths to get teaching artists seeking to deploy into the discipline of community art and development? inches To develop regular and informed answers to this research issue, this part provides a review of the relevant peer-reviewed and scholarly literature regarding these theoretical frameworks to check into the different job paths teaching artists seek to deploy in to the field of community fine art and expansion, including innovative community building and adult community centers such as working together with Alzheimer’s Disease and cerebrovascular accident victims.
Adult Learning Theories
Kolb’s Experiential Learning Theory. There are a wide array of assumptive models which can be used to identify and better understand teaching and learning tastes by educators and students, including Kolb’s experiential learning theory which has been shown to be powerful in explaining how adults learn (Akella, 2010). Regarding this, Kolb (1984) defines experiential learning as being a “holistic integrative perspective in learning that combines knowledge, cognition and behavior” (p. 21). Mature learning, from Kolb’s perspective, is “a continuous method grounded in experience” (1984, p. 41).
The adult experiential learning process came up with by Kolb is a step-wise cycle that is certainly comprised of four stages: (a) concrete knowledge, (b) reflective observation, (c) abstract conceptualization, and (d) active experimentation. According to Turesky (2005), “Individuals are likely to emphasize several stages, resulting in different learning styles and their associated talents and insufficiencies. For built-in learning to take place, it is necessary to go through all of the stages of Kolb’s learning circuit. When a number of of these proportions are underdeveloped or overlooked, individual learning is blocked” (p. 59).
Conversely, learning is facilitated when all four dimensions will be addressed satisfactorily (Turesky, 2005). In quantity, “Kolb describes learning as a dynamic method, allowing for a much more sophisticated method of understanding and working with the cognitive progress the individual by moving past stage expansion theory” (Turesky, 2005, l. 59). In contrast to linear ideas of learning, Kolb’s cyclical theory of learning can be congruent with other adult learning theories which includes transformational learning. For instance, relating to Baumgartner (2002), “The transformational learning journey was originally came up with as a linear process. However , further research indicates that it is more individualistic, fluid, and recursive, than originally thought” (p. 18). The summary of the Kolb learning inclination survey claims that:
1 . Learning is best conceived as a process, not in terms of final results. To improve learning in advanced schooling, the primary target should be in engaging college students in a process that best enhances their learning – a process that features feedback on the effectiveness with their learning efforts. “… education must be conceptualized as a ongoing reconstruction of experience:… The task and target of education are one and the same thing. “
installment payments on your All learning is relearning. Learning is most beneficial facilitated with a process that draws your students’ philosophy and ideas about a topic so that they can always be examined, examined, and included with new, more enhanced ideas.
3. Learning requires the quality of clashes between dialectically opposed ways of edition to the universe.
4. Discord, differences, and disagreement are what drive the learning method. In the process of learning, one is called upon to move back and forth between opposing methods of reflection and action and sense and thinking.
5. Learning is a alternative process of edition to the globe. It is not only the result of honnêteté but entails the bundled functioning of the total person – considering, feeling, perceiving, and acting.
6. Learning results from synergetic transactions between person as well as the environment. Learning occurs through equilibration of the dialectic procedures of gathering new experience into existing concepts and accommodating existing concepts to new knowledge.
7. Learning is the means of creating knowledge. ELT proposes a constructivist theory of learning where social knowledge is created and recreated in the personal understanding of the novice. This stands in contrast to the “transmission” model on which very much current educational practice relies, where pre-existing fixed ideas are transmitted for the learner (The Kolb Learning Style Inventory – Edition 3. you, 2005, g. 2).
Certainly, there is a great intuitive top quality to these observations, but the significant point of Kolb is the fact adults have got fundamentally different reasons for pursuing educational objectives and that these types of differences has to be taken into account when formulating curricular offerings. According to Kolb’s model, there is a “need for learner participation in all educational activities” (Akella, 2010, p. 101), and Experiential Learning Theory will help determine what the actual learning knowledge meaningful intended for adult students. In this regard, Kolb’s learning style inventory can be used to: (a) match different pupil learning models to sophisticated subject things, (b) figure out individual choices for certain learning experiences and, (c) help the re-homing of different instructing methodologies which will suit different learning styles (Akella, 2010, p. 101). In addition , Kolb’s model may also be used to analyze additional issues concerning adult education, including (a) curriculum expansion and faculty creation, (b) participant-centered learning, (c) brain learning and (d) management learning (Akella).
Kinesthetic Learning. Right now there appears to be an inextricable interconnection between physical feedback, physical movement and effective learning for some adults (Weggelaar, 2006). For instance, Dunn (2009) highlights that, “Every individual provides the capability to find out, regardless of academics aptitude; however , each individual discovers in a several manner” (p. 31). Also, according to Symons and Clark (2011), “Creative actions have been used as a restorative tool because the inception of occupational therapy. The part of imaginative activities features varied after some time due to the changing focus of treatment in favor of kinesiological, neurological and psychodynamic approaches” (p. 45).
For some mature learners, kinesthetic learning may promote involvement and subject retention in manners that are not conceivable using standard teaching strategies (Dunn, 2009). For instance, according to Dunn (2009), “Students with kinesthetic preferences master through their particular senses, hands-on experimentation, and real-life application” (p. 31). Moreover, Dunn notes that after teachers understand adult learner’s learning tastes, they can develop curricular offerings that match these tastes in ways that contribute to the novice and as well since teacher’s knowledge:
Perceptual choices influence how individual students learn. Learners with a primary visual choice will choose to gain data through blueprints, charts, and posters. Teachers can then reinforce or boost new understanding through advanced presentations in other perceptual settings such as the oral (e. g., lecturing, course discussion) or kinesthetic (e. g., trials, hands-on activities, simulations). (p. 32)
Also, citing the advantages of reliable sensory feedback when writing or typing, Weggelaar emphasizes that, “The ability to feel and acknowledge your individual movements takes on a crucial part at a lot of points in the process of writing and reading. Kinesthetic feedback is implied, preverbal, at the silent level, but it is usually an indispensable link in realizing speech noises and in writing” (p. 145). Much like the cyclical learning unit conceptualized by simply Kolb, specific learning can be blocked when kinesthetic opinions is damaged or unavailable. In this regard, Weggelaar concludes that for many adult learners, “When you have reliable kinesthetic responses and can think your very own speech motions you know withought a shadow of doubt how presentation sounds combine. Without kinesthetic feedback, these kinds of patterns of movements are generally not recognizable units” (p. 146).
Taken collectively, it is fair providing mature learners with kinesthetic learning opportunities is going to enhance their learning experience, plus the research thus far indicates a significant percentage of mature learners choose these hands-on opportunities. A survey of general populace participants, teachers’ and students’ learning-preference users found that teachers and students differed from one another in 3 main advantageous modalities: (a) auditory, (b) read/write, and (c) kinesthetic preferences. Relating to Dunn, “In every group of 40 students, a teacher can expect to encounter a diverse blend learners. You are likely to prefer the image mode, one could prefer the oral mode, four would prefer the read/write mode, six would choose the kinesthetic mode, and the remaining 18 preferred a combination of modalities (i. e., we were holding multimodal)” p. 32).
Put Learning. Put knowledge can be defined by simply Kerka (2002) as “knowledge that involves feelings, perceptions, and mind-body action and reaction” (p. 37). Embodied understanding is bought through embodied learning activities that are different from the conventional text-lecture approach found in many educational institutions today. Relating to Alsop and Bencze (2005), “Everyday learning recognizes that learning involves the body as on the inside as the mind and embraces cognitive, emotional, physical and social dimensions. In put learning, honnêteté, perception, ethnical tools and action most work together in the learning process” (p. 143).
Similar to kinesthetic learning, embodied learning consists of using physical feedback and environmental tips to help the learning process. This approach symbolizes a sea alter is pedagogical thinking because it draws on latest innovative analysis that difficulties current ways to delivering educational services to adult scholars. In this regard, Kerka (2002) stresses that, “Western culture continues to be dominated by the separation of cognitive knowledge from embodied knowledge as well as the distrust of