1 . I am aware both the Dark ages and Renaissance took place in Europe. The center Ages had been terrible moments marked by plagues, primitive agricultural machinery, war and lack of appropriate sanitation. The Renaissance occurred later in Europe, and this was noticeable by the rebirth of interest in art and intellectual capability. Art generally intertwined faith.
2 . Manchester supported using the term ” Dark Ages to describe the historical period between four hundred BCE and 1000 BCE due to the deficiency of intellectual existence, “incessant war, where multiple groups, including the Goths and Huns got part inside the massacre and pillaging of villages.
3. The numerous dangers that European people faced throughout the Dark Ages included:
lack of imperial infrastructure
4. Augustine’s concepts led to the Medieval Chapel gaining power by saying that Rome was paying for it’s previous sins and to draw a line Paganism ( that has been represented as depraved), and Christianity, ( which was symbolized as wholesome).
5. A good example of how middle ages people put together paganism with Christianity was that they constructed Christian churches on what were when pagan wats or temples.
6. The Middle Ages was not a world due to its lack of technological advancements and its lack of culture. Difficulties institutions contained the Roman Catholic Cathedral and nobles.
7. The greatest kingdom in Europe circa 1190 was the Holy Roman Empire. almost eight. Rule by divine correct was the approach king’s of the Roman Empire ruled, which was by the laws of the Church. European nobleman and princes always reigned over by divine right, in fear of being kicked from the Church.
being unfaithful. The Great Schism was brought on by Pope Clement V, who moved the papacy to France, in which it stayed. Some people needed an Italian to take over after Pope Gregory XI’s position after his fatality, while a majority wanted a French pontiff. twelve. People cannot see the Avignon papacy being a crisis because the actions from the pope directly correlated with the “word of God, choosing absolute. 11. Examples of the “lack of egoduring the Middle Ages included: People with imagination has no feeling of do it yourself
Most people acquired nicknames because they distributed surnames with many other people No person knew the identities in the people who made their buildings 12. Unam Sanctum was obviously a “bull affirming papal supremacy. This kind of proclaimed the book since the one and true innovator.
13. The “coming storm Manchester hinted at that was rapidly getting close medieval The european countries was the end of the Ancient and beginning of the Renaissance. 16. Knighthood was dying became chivalry was obsolete. The methods the knights in battle used in the battlefield would also right now prove inadequate. The future might belong to the Monarchs since they were the sole people capable to afford the new-age training and supplies pertaining to the infantrymen.
15. Manchester described the Renaissance heart as “subtle, but powerful. Artists arrived first. of sixteen. According to Manchester, old people couldn’t imagine a unique life since they failed to have the perspective to see later on. Their daily lives don’t call for creativity or creative interpretation.
17. The “dragons that lurked beyond the borders of medievalism had been Johannes Gutenberg, Cesare Borgia, Johann Tetzel, Desiderius Erasmus, Martin Luther, Jakob Fugger, Francois Rabelais, Girolamo Savonarola, Nicolaus Copernicus, Giordano Moro, Niccolo Machiavelli, William Tyndalem, John Calvin, Vasco Nunec de Balboa, Emperor Charles V, Full Henry VII, Tamas sobre Torquemada, Lucrezia Borgia, Bill Caxton, Gerardus Mercator, GirolamoAleandro, Ulrich von Hutton, Marton Walidseemuller, Jones More, Catherine of Aragon, Christopher Columbus, Vasco sobre Gama and Ferdinand Magellan.
Part Two: The Shattering
18. This kind of passage suggests that the way background is perceived is based on the result it has in current incidents rather than the likelihood of it’s long-term effects. 19. Magellan’s finding of the Philippines was significant because it turned out the world was round. He provided a “linchpin pertaining to the Renaissance by giving other folks the ways of challenging middle ages assumptions.
twenty. European “life became extremely cheap in the late 1400s and early 15th century because:
21. The unchristian works of the five popes during Magellan’s life-time included: Harmless VIII (1484-1492) -forged pontifical billsJulius 2 (1561-1564) ” watched the murders of Christians to get amusement Sixtus IV (1471-1485) -anointed loved ones as cardinals; conspired tough Alexander NI (1492- 1503) ” ordering off leading candidates
Leo X (1513-1521) -appointed people of relatives into chapel; illegitimate kids 22. Girolamo Savonarola was obviously a Dominican friar who spoke against the Cathedral and desired the current pope at the time, Alexander VI, to become removed. Possibly after penalized, continued to continued to travel against the Cathedral, was charged with heresy, tortured and hanged. Savonarola’s significance is that his pain and loss of life displayed that even though the Chapel was damaged, it was not possible to change that because the Church was substantial power.
3. The sociable conditions of Europe circa 1500s was laborious forthe lower classes. Knights, though now worthless, lived pleasantly. While many reduce classes worked to hardly survive, midsection and higher classes live a life of decadence. Pre-marital love-making wasn’t viewed as taboo because of the myths encircling “mysterious pregnancies. Famines were common and many lower course families ate only two meals per day. The Cathedral continued to acquire influence within the daily lives of the people, their luxurious lifestyles learning to be a normality just for this age. twenty-four. The Hapsburg lands in 1519 included Spain, France England, Ireland in europe, Holy Both roman Empire, Poland, Ottoman Disposition and Western and Central Europe. 25. The Fuggers were German born bankers who had influence and political electrical power over The european countries. They managed a majority of Europe’s economy.
26. The reasons intended for predominant adultery during the Renaissance was as a result of artists’ romanticized idea of this, which made it popular amongst many people. Most marriages were arranged and extramarital relations had been even known as obligatory. twenty-seven. Many of the reasons why medieval methods were deserted was because of low comfort, which separated the more mature generations through the newer one particular. Everyone likewise lacked the restraint to keep the buy of the older ways.
twenty-eight. The Borgia’s family story shows that the Church can do anything it pleased without much much result. The House of worship had the power to lay and deceive the general public and turn them against each other in hopes of staying away from personal scandals. 29. The arts flourished during the Renaissance due to the chaos and lack of moral restraint which in turn ran rampant. Artists flourished in the disorder and loved living alarmingly. Luca Signorelli painted the Sistine Church.
30. Kopernik’s studies and findings included the idea that earth was revolving on its own axis around the sun annually, and that this wasn’t the center of the whole world. 31. De uma Vinci exclusively fellfrom papal grace as they saw how depraved the Church came into existence and threatened to expose that.
32. Ag Vinci’s discoveries included:
33. Political figures and ecclesiastics controlled learning before the typographical revolution and post- catalogs were the key source of learning and because of more curiosity, people wanted to more literate.
34. The first visitors were businessmen and midsection and upper class women. The men read ebooks for trade and sector while women read love novels. thirty-five. Before the business of schools, illiteracy leaped rampant because the idea of learning a trade wasn’t a high priority and lacked the impact it do later on. Pro-university, many persons became proficient in not only their perspective different languages, but as well Latin. 36. Humanists were new teachers who appreciated new suggestions regarding Ancient greek language and Both roman literature. Because of their new found points of views, they were able to interpret traditional literature in a manner that wasn’t censored by the House of worship.
37. Euro opinions relating to religion circa 1502 had been broadening because of humanism. Even more ideas relating to religion were being intertwined with increased intellectually difficult and open perspectives.
32. Two reasons why humanism might become “the greatest danger the Cathedral had ever faced mainly because:
This went against “the divine word from the Gospel
It ignored the following life for a even more carpe diem approach
39. The meaning of Plato’s “Man is the measure of all things for humanists was that the minds of men were the limit. Given that they were not as intellectually slower as they believed they were, we were holding no longer shackled by lack of knowledge.
40. In respect to humanists, “mankind’s top ethical objective is to not focus on themselves and their souls’ salvation, but to focus on ways to help mankind improve.
41. St . Peter’s Basilica angered Michaelangelo and Luther mainly because large sums of money were being spent to get a dead pope’s ashes whilst it could have been accustomed to aid individuals dwelling in poverty.
42. The idea of transform was tremendously disturbing to Catholics mainly because their trust denied these people the ability to speak out for the thing that was just without being labeled a heretic.
43. In my opinion, the statement Stansted made, “faith did carry Europe with each other. Without theoppressive reigns religion held around the European people, the need for lewdness and damage would be unneeded, and many artists and philosophers of the Renaissance were inspired by it as it also influenced them personally.
44. Erasmus was a humanist, who, while Christian, bitten the Church’s archaic methods via satirical pieces.
forty five. According to Manchester, the “coming faith based movement was led by the upper and middle classes.
46. Two main quarrels of Erasmus’s In Reward of Folly were: Your race due it’s presence to folly, since with no original folly, or bad thing (referring to Adam and Eve), points wouldn’t become the way they were The ignorance and gullibility of the Chapel involving their very own faith; the Church got lost it can meaning. 47. Erasmsus criticized Pope Julius II simply by satirizing him in a job that later on became a skit for any Parisian market. He did this to expose the man who have could cover behind the powerful subject of pope, even if these were involved in terrible and unchristian things. forty-eight. The forces that Stansted argued “fractured the unity of Christendom included: humanismthe revelation that art and learning had flourished prior to the birth of Jesus the discreditation of Western european Christian commanders, who though their belief in The almighty was widespread Marguerite of Angouleme’s skepticism and disorders on thepopes
49. Evidence to support the population perception with the priesthood involves an Archbishop accusing an abbot of fornication, embezzlement and living publicly. 40. The providing of indulgences sparked the ruin with the Church. 51. The 16th century people across The european countries despised House of worship taxation since the tax we were holding paying was going towards the Church’s recreation, including prostitutes. They noticed the Cathedral greedy, because while it was gathering money to pay for excellent things, various people were famished.
52. included the claim that men could forgiven, no matter their bad thing. Tetzel extorted those who had been weak minded and dreaded eternal condemnation[n]: damning. 53. Luther’s youth included an damaging childhood among his chaotic and carefully zealous father and mother. Wanting to rebel against, this individual went against his parents ideals to get him and became a monk. Luther’s dreams of the satan led him to be certainly not intimidated by Tetzel’s method for advertising indulgences.
54. Luther select October 31st 1517 to post his 96 Theses because that future day can be All New orleans saints Day, and lots of people would have been able to look at them. fifty five. Luther was seen as equally divine and satanic due to the fact that he trained people to self satisfactory regarding the House of worship, but as well spoke against the very foundation what this individual taught. This individual also compared with raising more income to build chapels, since that could have been used to aid the poor. 56. It was a little while until twenty times to travel by Nuremberg to Rome. 57. Many of the decrease socioeconomic classes, such as the cowboys, saw him as a “great magician due to the influence he previously from getting in the House of worship. The upper socioeconomic classes had been wary of the pope as a result of past indiscretions of the prior popes, which includes excessive taxation.
58. Persons “suffered twice as from Renaissance popes mainly because not only were they extorted by Tetzel, they started to believe all their faith had been abused due to the greedy program. 59. Père Leo responded to Luther’s calls against selling graces by creating works to make sure the House of worship that he was sincere about his placement. He likewise declined to abandon bienveillances. 60. January Hus was “the initial great Czech patriot and wasthe main reason behind the humiliation of Luther. Hus, who in opposition men inside the Church and offended the king was expected to end up being condemned simply by Luther, but was not.
61. The Exsurge Domine was ” a bull condemning Luther’s declarations. The Exsurge Domine as well stated the belief that Luther’s books should be burned up and wished him to reconcile together with the Church. Pope Leo By issued this against Luther because he continuing to demonstration against the selling of bienveillances.
62. Luther’s decision to publish the venaculm was based upon his fluency in The german language. Knowing that that it would audio more powerful in his indigenous tongue, he wanted to create an motion. 63. The meaning of Luther ending together with his trial at Worms together with the German words, “Here We stand. I could do forget about. , was his stating that he would not take his words against the Church back, because this would go against his take great pride in. The significance of Luther ending with this statement was obviously a catalyst intended for the defiance against the Church. 64. The European people who converted to Protestantism included the educational middle class, nobility, and anticlericals. The real reason for this was since some of these Western people assumed ” Catholicism was seated in superstition, while others thought the Chapel abusing it’s power to gain more money through high income taxes.
65. Early Protestantism was not tolerant of other made use of. This was displayed through their acts of violence against people from the other religions, which included burning and executing them. Early Protestants even gone as far as to disagree to sectors of Protestantism. 66. The understanding of the Reformation was in the hands of the citizens, who, tanks to Luther, started a rebellion that distributed throughout The european countries. When Muntzer published a work against Luther and tried out t business lead his own rebellion, he was executed.
67. Reasons relating to the alienation of humanists coming from Luther involved his impression of view, which a lot of the up-risers appeared to loose once the revolt began. Luther’s articulateness regarding to whom he was standing with included Johannes Cochlaeus, ConradusMutinanus, Willibald Pirkheimer, Johannes Reuchlin and in many cases Erasmus. Their very own cruel strategies contrasted with Luther’s impression of thinking.
68. The Reformation victimized humanists intellectuals due to their lack of safe haven, contrary to the Catholics. Humanist intellectuals were often martyred. 69. Early Calvinism was a great oppressive time period marked simply by fear and brutality. The tyrannical leader, John Calvin, banned different types of entertainment and believed natural unfortunate occurances were brought on by the Devil. Individuals who opposed Calvin were tormented and performed. 70. The Roman Inquisition’s goals included harsh methods to ensure that the Catholic hope would forever be branded into individuals who practiced that. Possessing Protestant literature was a felony and execution was your only method to eliminate Protestantism. 71. Luther and Ruler Henry VII viewed the other person with contempt and scorn. Being Catholic, King Holly VII disagreed with Luther’s practices and Luther presumed King Henry VII to be unfit to get the tub.
72. Ruler Henry VII left the Catholic cathedral because he wished to divorce his wife, who was impotent, although that was against the laws and regulations of the Church. 73. The downfall of Thomas Moore included his talk up against the king, as they thought the king’s lack was the basis for the section in the House of worship. He was after that executed by the king. This action displayed the strength the ruler had.
74. While Mary I and Elizabeth I actually were both equally daughters of King Henry VII, their very own conflicting views on religion conflicted. Mary I’s upbringing in Catholicism led her to become harsher ruler compared to Elizabeth’s I Protestant upbringing.
Portion Three: 1 Man Alone
75. The factors that destroyed the Renaissance included:
The Religious Revolution
Show up of Constantinople to Muhammad II
Humanists locating wisdom in classical world
76. The geographical ideas of Topographia Christiana, Aristotle, Ptolemy plus the average Western person differed greatly. Topographia Christiana believed the sun thrown around the mountain range while the The planet was smooth, Aristotle assumed the Earth revolved around the sun, while Ptolemy presumed that the sun was not only round, although also revolved around the sun. The standard European person though the The planet was level. 77. Discoveries of the early European settlers included:
Strait of Magellan
80. Magellan’s background included becoming a Portuguese manager who wished to explore the New World’s seas. His journey was also funded simply by Spanish Vips. 79. The first stages of Magellan’s expedition included finding the Rio de la Plata about accident and surpassing a tiny uprising and rumors coming from his shipmates.
80. Magellan’s routes included:
going to southern of Africa after going out of Spain
going through the Indian Sea and dealing with the Israel Traveling in the tip of South America to it’s east coast
81. Magellan’s journey proved that the Earth was spherical.
82. The events that led to Magellan; s demise included: simmering tensions among crew
crew sleeping with the wives, sisters advertising daughters from the Filipino men obsession with converting the Filipinos to Christianity
Fight with Lapulapu
Refusal to keep Philippines
83. Magellan’s authentic story was preserved by Franciso Albo.
84. In accordance to Gatwick, Magellan was a hero in the Renaissance due to his defiance of the guidelines and his willpower.
85. In Manchester’s view, the most appropriate tribute to Magellan was the Magellanic clouds. 86. The tripartite was used to spell out the belief in heaven, hell and globe (purgatory). Various other superstitions thought it was The lord’s punishments when ever crops failed. 87. Kipler’s significance included being the first person to prove mathematically that the globe was circular and revolved around the sun. 88. Heliocentrism- The planet moves in orbit round the sun. 89. Ptolemy’s idea of geocentrism was that the entire world was in a set spot, unmoving, and was also the center of the universe while different planets revolved around that.
90. The Copernican Trend was a revolution based on the geocentric queries of Copernicus. It result in the question of faith, sine because the revolution traveled, European people started to realize the actual believed had been facts, had been actually inappropriate. 91. The Europeans formerly view Magellan’s discovery because insignificant when compared with it’s significance in history now. His discovery led to an onslaught of others, including different ethnicities and religions. Archaic, superstitious beliefs were now being disproven. ninety two. Some of the concerns that Magellan’s voyage led Europeans to inquire: Where was Heaven? Did the others who believed in several cultures/religions in addition have a Heaven? Exactly where was Terrible?
93. Galileo was a European astronomer who disproved geocentrism. 94. According to the Manchester, the discovery in the sun like a star, was “one of the greatest paradigm changes in every one of science and “the glorious triumph of the Renaissance. 96. The pope reacted to the heliocentric program with scorn, and even denied it’s assert as real truth because it deified the laws of the Holy bible.
96. The five factors that challenged and overcame the old mindset included: The Renaissance
new horizons of trade
97. Voltaire’s quote can be stating that people need something to believe in. Without a perception in a thing higher than themselves, there would be zero hope or perhaps purpose. 98. According to Manchester, the legacies with the end of the medieval brain and the Renaissance are everlasting skepticism, the losing of innocence correlated with the knowledge of any supposed complete religion, loosing credentials that religion once had in their eyes. 99. An example of how high-end humanism and religious fundamentalism remain in issue is the separation of chapel and express.
100. I actually learned that the Middle Ages and the Renaissance had been tumultuous moments, but for diverse reasons after reading A new Lit Simply by Open fire. The Middle Age groups was a primitive time that was marked by simply ignorance and fear. The Renaissance was both a time of fear and enlightenment, marked with a divergence among intellectualism and religion. Various scientific discoveries came to be inside the Renaissance age group. While the outdated ways of the center Ages were discarded, including chivalry, knighthood, and paganism, a religion with destructive rulers took their place. But , without this kind of destructiveness, the artists well known today more than likely be who they actually are. The cause and effect of these two conflicted time periods still carry significance today.