Excerpt from Term Paper:
Hohokam Lifestyle and Customs
The Hohokam culture was one of 4 “major social groups that dominated the southwest, ” which included similar thinking native American groups such as the Anasazi, Gentio and Patayan (McGuire, 1996; Cordell, 1984). The Hohokam culture is normally referred to as the sibling with the Anasazi (Kroeber, 1962), having many ethnical similarities having its better regarded cousin. The Hohokam existed among the complete region with the “lower Sonoran desert inside Arizona, part of the Basin plus the Range through this region” (McGuire, 1996). The Hohokam contributed many different ideas and cultural practices that changed the way of traditional native Americans. They are most well-known for their agricultural fervor, creative ability and ceremonial rituals which included cremation of their dead rather than burial.
The name Hohokam is associated with “the ancients” (Kroeber, 1962). The tribe had been neighbors to the Anasazi, somewhat similar to Tribu cultures (Kroeber, 1962), and though to have moved from numerous regions in Mexico to Arizona plus the surrounding location (Gregoris, 1997). Many generally compare the Hohokam together with the Anasazi, whom built much the same dwellings and lived related lifestyles. The Hohokam differentiate themselves somewhat however because they build largely segregated dwellings in posts and reeds, with habitats typically more dry in mother nature requiring the digging of irrigated waterways and abandons (Kroeber, 1962).
The Hohokam prehistory period is often broken into four intervals by archeologists, including the next: pioneer, colonial time, sedentary and classic (McGuire, 1996; Leader, 1991). Frequently commented in are the durations from sedentary to time-honored.
In the original phases of culture, termed as the colonial, red-on-grey pottery was frequently created by simply Hohokam potters (McGuire, 1992). Pottery utilized for transact, cooking so that as a form of art, often decorated with images of designs and animals. Hohokam traditions throughout the colonial period typically propagate across all of Arizona, with villages popping up along huge canals (McGuire, 1992) and harvesting vegetation that grew along irrigated canals.
Throughout the sedentary period, ranging from around AD 1000-1100, much “artistic expression” was realized in the culture, including a “hierarchy of settlements in villages” with central plazas and extended architecture (McGuire, 1992). The Hohokam are well-known for building “pit house” neighborhoods on the corners of large settlements” (McGuire, 1992). The Hohokam used irrigation agriculture yet also developed wild crops and video game, which constructed the majority of their particular diet (Gasser, 1976; McGuire, 1992
The Hohokam had been believed to be the first to live among the list of Tucson Container in Illinois (Gregonis, 1997). The farming settlers were often referred to as inactive farmers, living primarily on farms in average size settlements primarily along the Sodium and Gila rivers (Kroeber, 1962; Gregonis, 1997). The style of living was often referred to as “rancheria” where persons lived in independent house groups within a greater village (Gregonis, 1997). Perhaps this tradition was based on the royaume in Mexico from which they will Hohokam are thought to have originated. These were the pit houses as defined above. Users of the community had independent family lives, but likewise contributed to more suitable good from the community. Most of village users made a full time income from trading shells and carving natural stone bowls and also clay human being figurines (Gregonis, 1997).
Among the crops farmed by the tribe include natural cotton and hammer toe, beans and squash (Gregonis, 1997; Erickson, 1994). Corn is often a great agricultural item depicted in pottering images and designs. Typically complex intertwining systems of canals were built to lead water by rivers to fields (McGuire, 1992; Gregonis, 1997). The Hohokam had been among the first native Americans to place so much of an focus on farming and irrigation rather than hunting and gathering. In the event nothing else their particular lifestyle may be considered the one which was more settled than that of classic native cultures.
Hunting and gathering was however , nonetheless a way of life among a majority of the Hohokam, and villagers often gathered fruits including cactus which to survive in (Gregonis, 1997). Wild game was likewise hunted which include duck, poulet