PERROQUET S TIRM A as well as ORIGINAL ARTICL E Gulhane T? s Derg 2011, 53: 17-25 © Gulhane Askeri T? p Akademisi 2011 Exploration of the regularity of testicular self exam performance in young adult men Ercan Gocgeldi (*), Necmettin Kocak (**), Serdar Ulus (**), Cenk Yeginer (**), Seref Essentiel (***) SYNOPSIS Testicular tumors are the second most frequently seen malignancy after leukemia inside the age group of 20-35 in men. The rate of a 5-year survey is usually 99. 9% with early diagnosis.
Knowing of the individuals and executing a testicular self examination by themselves are essential in the early diagnosis.
The aim from this cross-sectional study was to determine the functionality frequency of testicular do it yourself examination as well as the factors impacting this among young adults. Of all the participants, twenty-three. 3%, 6. 8% and 4. 7% declared that they can had learned about testicular tumor and about testicular self assessment, and that they got performed testicular self evaluation at least once in your daily course, respectively. The rates of hearing about and performing testicular self evaluation were located low in the present study, however these costs were bigger among people who had heard about testicular tumor from populace.
Well planned campaigns and educational organizations might be conducted in the country-wide in order to increase the understanding about testicular cancer as well as the frequency of testicular do it yourself examination. Keywords: Soldier, testicular cancer, testicular self-examination, youthful adult person OZET Genc eriskin erkeklerde kendi kendine testis muayenesi yapma s? kl? g? n? d arast? 3rd there�s r? lmas? Testis tumorleri 20-35 yas grubu erkeklerde losemiden sonra en s? t rastlanan 2 . malignitedir. Erken tan? ile 5 sumado a? ll? t yasam oran? %99. 9’dur. Bireylerin fark? ndal? g? ve kendi kendilerine testis muayenesi yapmalar? erken tan? icin onemlidir.
Bu kesitsel cal? smadaki amac? m? z, genc eriskin erkeklerde kendi kendisine testis muayenesi uygulama duzeyi ve buna etki eden faktorleri saptamakt? r. Kat? l? mc? lar? in %23. 3’u testis kanserini duyduklar? and?, %6. 8’i kendi kendisine testis muayenesini duyduklar? n?, %4. 7’si hayatlar? boyunca en arizona bir kez kendi kendisine testis muayenesi yapt? durchscheinend? n? belirtmislerdir. Cal? smam? z? n yap? ld? g? populasyonda kendi kendisine testis muayenesini duyma s? kl? g? ve kendi kendisine testis muayenesi yapma durumlar? dusuk bulunmustur, ancak bu oranlar testis kanserini populasyondan duyanlarda daha yuksek olarak bulunmustur.
Testis kanserinin fark? ndal? g? in? n empieza kendi kendisine testis muayenesinin s? kl? g? and? n fine art? r? lmas? icin ulke genelinde iyi planlanm? h kampanyalar empieza egitim organizasyonlar? duzenlenebilir. Anahtar kelimeler: Asker, testis kanseri, kendi kendine testis muayenesi, genc eriskin erkek 2. Department of Plan and Programming, Commandership of Wellness, Turkish Army Forces ** Department of Public Health, Gulhane Military Medical Faculty *** Department of Urology, Gulhane Military Medical Faculty This study was presented with the 12th Nationwide Congress of Public Health (Ankara, October 21-25, 2008) Reprint request: Doctor
Ercan Gocgeldi, Department of Plan and Programming, Commandership of Health, Turkish Armed service Forces, Bakanl? klar, Ankara, Turkey E-mail: [email, protected] com Particular date submitted: This summer 15, 2010 • Time accepted: November 01, 2010 Introduction Testicular cancer is among the health problems, frequency of which continuously increases. Testicular tumors would be the second most popular malignancy after leukemia in males with the age group of 20-35 (1). The occurrence of testicular cancer displays variations between countries, contests and socio-economic classes. The speed is six. 7% and 0. in Scandinavian countries and Japan, respectively. In the USA 2-3 new cases will be reported per 100. 1000 males annually (2). The risk of a progress testicular cancer in white colored males in the USA during the expereince of living is at a good of zero. 2%. The incidence in people of higher socio-economic classes can be half of the reduced socio-economic classes (2). Even though the reason for testicular cancer can be not known exactly, there is knowledge regarding that both inborn as well as several acquired factors are responsible in tumor development. The most powerful relationship is to use an “undescended testis”.
Roughly 7-10% of testicular cancers develop with cryptorchidism record. The cryptorchidism prevalence can be 9. 2-30. 0% in premature births and a few. 55. 8% in adult births. Cryptorchidism frequency is 0. 8-1. 0% throughout the first era and remains unchanged using a ratio of 0. seven percent until growing up (3). Five to 10% of testicular tumors take place on the reverse side, in the normal originated testis. The best relative malignancy risk (1 of 20) is met in intra-abdominal testis. Placement of the cryptorchid testis into the ball sack (orchidopexy) decreases the malignancy potential with the cryptorchid testis (2).
The frequency of testicular cancers cases fulfilled on the right side is definitely 52. 3%, on the left side 47. 7%, and the frequency to be bilateral is definitely 2-3% (4). In general the patients check with the doctor due to a painless sole side bulge and mass in the scrotum. The growth with the testis generally develops gradually and a feeling of testicular soreness is experienced. The common accepted thoughts and opinions is that before the opposite 18 is approved, a determined asperity in the testis needs to be regarded as a malign tumor (3). Other symptoms are gynecomasty, pigmentation within the scrotum, and pain inside the abdomen as well as the groin.
Scrotal pain evolves at the overdue period of the tumor because of tunica albuginea or epididymis invasion (4). The time between the first breakthrough of the lesion in the testis and start in the definite treatment (orchidectomy) is 3-6 weeks in typical. The time from the delay shows a correlation with the chance of the metastasis. Approximately 10% of the individuals are asymptomatic and can be discovered upon shock or by the sexual spouse of the affected person (3). Testis tumor often mimics epididymitis and epididymorchidis. Ten per cent of testis tumors imitates orchiepididymitis.
Their very own diagnosis can easily be made with ultrasound and anamnesis. Other disorders to be regarded as during the prognosis are spermatocele, traumatic hematocele, granulomatous orchitis, varicocele and epidermoid vulgaris (3). Testicular cancer can be treated completely when they are detected at the begining of stages. The possibility for a 5-year life is 99. 9% with early prognosis (5). Among the basic diagnostic methods, ultrasound, transillumination and computed tomography can be described (1, 3). Individuals’ recognition and their doing a testicular self evaluation (TSE) independently is important concerning an early analysis (3).
Regimen testicular home examination (R-TSE) is an examination performed by the person himself at least once a month and regularly, which is made by employing both hands, whilst holding the testis with one hand and examining the testis upon masses during bathing or right after bathing facing a mirror (1, 6). Combined with advantages that R-TSE is not hard to learn and to apply, safe, noninvasive, economic, and does not will need any particular tools and devices, devote some time. When it is performed regularly monthly, it provides that changes happen to be detected early on because the testis structure is known.
There are some research examining testicular cancer and TSE performance frequencies. During these studies, TSE performance consistency varies in line with the attributes of the group which the study is definitely realized. The frequencies of hearing about testicular cancer and TSE and performance of TSE in these studies are described in Desk I. Inside the study performed by Ercan et. ing. among 867 male students between the age ranges of 18-30 years, it truly is determined that 8. 9% of the participants have heard regarding TSE, and 5. 1% perform TSE (6). In the study performed by Lechner et. m. among 274 students between the ages of 15-19 years, it is determi18 • 03 2011 • Gulhane Scientif J ned that 3. 0% of the participants heard about TSE and installment payments on your 0% performed TSE (5). The TSE performance consistency of the individuals of the examine realized by Khadra et. al. among 202 folks of the ages of 18-50 years who consulted a polyclinic providing first stage health solutions is determined while 22. 0% (7). Inside the study performed by Moore et. approach. among 203 people who are university students or teachers between the age groups of 20-45 years, it is determined that 32. % of the individuals have heard about TSE and 22. 0% performed TSE (8). In the study simply by Rudberg ainsi que. al. performed among students in Laxa, sweden, it is identified that many with the students have never heard anything about TSE (9). In the examine of Tichler et. al. among 717 soldiers and 200 armed service physicians in the Israeli armed service, 2 . 0% of the military and 73% of the medical professionals have stated that they have performed TSE (10). In the examine of Vaz et. al. among 1364 adolescent males, 28. 0% of the members stated that they can had discovered testicular malignancy (11).
With this study of Wardle ain. al. between 7304 young male adults, it is stated that 13. 0% of the individuals have performed TSE (12). In the analyze by Neef et. ‘s. among 404 male students, it is stated that 42. 0% of the individuals heard about TSE, 22% performed TSE just before (13). In the study by Cummings ainsi que. al. between 266 university students and man graduates, it is determined that 16. 0% of the members have heard about TSE (14). In the research of Christine et. al. among 191 young adult men between the age range of 18-35 years, it is known that thirty six. % of the participants have got performed TSE (15). It is extremely important that you become more informed on testicular cancer, that the consistency of incurrence has increased during the last years, they study and apply TSE as an early analysis method. The aim of this study was to determine the testicular self evaluation performance frequency in young adult males. Material and Strategies The universe of this research, planned in cross section type, was constituted by 5033 persons, who became a member of the Etimesgut Armoured Devices Education Center Commandership in the recruitment period in The fall of 2007.
There is absolutely no sample collection made for the study, it is targeted to reach the whole universe within a term of one week after the start of the arrival in the soldiers for the unit. As some soldiers signed up with the unit except for working hours and that several rejected to participate in the analysis, not the entire universe could be reached, the study was performed with 3645 (72. 4%) persons. The data were accumulated by the experts using the query form, produced by the researchers after a liGocgeldi et approach. Table We.
Brief results of research regarding the functionality of a testicular self examination Researchers Study type Age bracket Group feature Hearing of Hearing (n) testicular of TSE malignancy Ercan ainsi que. al. (6) Lechner ain. al. (5) Khadra ain. al. (7) Cross sectional Descriptive Detailed 18-30 15-19 18-50 Students (867) High-school students (274) People consulting polyclinic providing a first stage health providers (202) Students and graduates (203) High-school students (727) Male military (717) Armed forces physicians (200) Vaz ainsi que. al. (11) Wardle ainsi que. al. (12) Neef et. al. 13) Cummings et. al. (14) Descriptive Get across sectional Descriptive Descriptive Adolescent Young mature male (1364) 16486 learners College students (404) University students and graduates (266) People residing in industry intricate (191) 42% 16% 28% 42. 9% 26. 0% 91. 0% 8. 9% 3. 0% 28% At least one performance of TSE in life 5. 1% 2 . 0% 22% At least once a month functionality of TSE Country Turkey Holland Great britain Moore et. al. (8) Rudberg et. al. (9) Tichler et. al. (10) Descriptive Mix sectional Detailed 20-45 15-21 90. 6% 11. 3% 32. 0% 5. 6% 22. 0% 11. 5% 2% 73% 5. 06% 1 . 2% England Sweden Israel
UNITED STATES 13% 22% 8% Britain USA USA Christine et. al. (15) Descriptive 18-35 36% UNITED STATES terature hatch out. On the problem form, there are 7 queries regarding all their socio-demographic qualities, 3 queries regarding the tales of the members regarding malignancy and testicular cancer, 12 questions with regards to testicular self examination in order to determine all their behavior and 15 inquiries regarding testicular cancer, symptoms and TSE were included into the expertise test. The pre-test in the question contact form, prepared by the researchers was made with 20 soldiers of the Gulhane Military Medical Academy.
Support Troops Command, failures regarding the software and easiness to understand and observed failures regarding info entrance will be amended. It had been approved by the ethic percentage. Groups of 20 persons from the soldiers who also joined the Etimesgut Armoured Units Education Center Commandership in Nov 2007 were interviewed, the study and its aim were explained, if they should want to participate (those who orally accepted to) necessary info regarding some definitions inside the inquiry (testis, undescended testis, testicular self examination) can be provided orally such that Amount 53 • Issue you he individuals can understand these and provided that they will answer the questions under observation. The recruitment grow older in Poultry is twenty and those, whom are not impeded join the Armed Forces generally at the age of 21 years old years. Yet only for a little portion the recruitment age can be later as a result of several reasons. Thus, on the whole male carry out their army services when justin was 20-21. For this, the ages will be grouped while 20-21, 2224, 25 years and above.
The occupational data of the participants is attained as open up end and afterwards a grouping regarding being or not-being related to healthcare is conducted. The market distribution of the participants is definitely grouped by the regionalization approach to five of the Turkish Figure Institute by simply respecting their very own provinces of birth. The data were analyzed by using the SPSS 10. zero package statistic software. The descriptive figures were given as frequencies and percent.
The TSE overall performance frequencies and completeness of some sociodemographic with detailed attributes, the completeness of giving correct answers to each question of the knowledge test with the TSE performance freTesticular self exam • 19 quency, which it was thought that they can may have an effect on this, was compared with the chi-square, plus the comparison of the typical of the individuals giving accurate answers in the knowledge test out according for their socio-demographic and descriptive characteristics was compared to the Kruskal-Wallis and the Mann-Whitney U check. A g value of