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62663372

1 Introduction

Asia plays a great of import function in today , s excavation industry as a result of important solutions of assorted metals and mineral deposits, bring forthing about a 3 rd of world , h bauxite and gold, reputations for a half of planetary Confianza ore creation, and for regarding 70 % of universe , s hydraulic cement ( USGS, 2009 ). Within the part among the largest suppliers of precious metals and nutrients are China, India, and Indonesia.

Despite the important importance of metals and minerals in modern economic system, excavation actions far extremely frequently lead to terrible environmental debasement, set local communities under push per device area, trigger societal careers and sometimes proceed the cause of struggles.

Grasberg my very own in Indonesia is a great expressed illustration of enjambre issues linked to big managed to graduate table excavation. This conventional paper gives a quick reappraisal of excavation in Grasberg in the construct three pillars of sustainability, consequently analyzing economical, societal and particularly environmental impacts with this peculiar my very own.

2 Financial Impact

Because of the big graduated table with the operations, the Grasberg mine has a enormous consequence for the economical state of affairs of Philippines. Economic benefits include direct, such as income enhancement grosss and job and other indirect and activated economic benefits. The unfastened cavity procedures is anticipated to go on until 2015, than passage will be made to fully belowground creation and the business ( which company, name? Need to present this kind of mine firm ) is usually expected to always be profitable until 2041, which will secures these kinds of benefits to Indonesia until that video ( Freeport 2008 ).

The company is a largest income enhancement remunerator in Philippines, merely in 2004 this provided $ 3 billion and between 1992-2004, bucks 33 billion dollars direct and indirect benefits, which is two % of the GDP in the state and 55 % of the GROSS DOMESTIC PRODUCT of Irian Jaya condition, where the mine is located ( Perlez and Bonner 2006 ).

Along with cost-effective state of affairs, that besides has a immense outcome on the employment. In 2008 the company experienced 29, 300 employees and 10, 700 contractors, regarding 18, 500 people work on the mine which is operated by PT ( the gender chart? ) Freeport Indonesia ( Freeport 2009 ). Yet , the career impacts are definitely more complex as the excavation activity have created societal tensenesss and well being impacts just like AIDS and malaria in footings of in-migration, transmigration and urbanisation procedures. ( mention )

Besides direct effects Indonesia benefits from the indirect economical benefits, just like new airdrome, infirmaries and roads, nevertheless these were chiefly built to backup the substructure of the mine. In accessory, the company invested into wechselfieber control and educational AIDSs. Caused effects include rewards, other benefits purchased the workers, purchases of goods and services, that happen to be besides increasing economic advancement the state. point out

To decide bing societal and environmental issues the company has generated a 1 % trust account ( 1 % from the company , s gross one-year major ). Among its avertissement in 1996 and 99 it has been added $ 54. 8 million and it is prepared to go on in the following twelve old age ranges. In 1999, Freeport contributed US $ 18. 4 mil to the account. In contrast inside the same twelvemonth the CEO of Freeport, James Robert Moffet built US dollar 41 million which is about three times of the compensation. Sing an independent survey it has became a new beginning of troubles and struggle ( Kennedy 98 ). To decide urbanisation concerns and maximize grosss and occupations inside Papuan communities Freeport cooperates with the U. S. Agency for Worldwide Development and has released the Papua Agribusiness Creation Alliance. dollar 2 million is allocated to develop agribusiness and cultivation, therefore evolving betterments in agriculture and fishing facilitates ( Freeport 2009 ).

Besides recognized payments the organization provided side payments towards the authorities functionaries, and spent $ 35 million about military substructure. Harmonizing to company paperss, $ 20- $ 30 million were given to the armed forces and constabularies from 98 to 2004 ( Perlez and Bonner 2005 ).

In plaisanterie of all these kinds of above mentioned benefits and investings, the environmental debasement, societal and wellness issues remain and will ne’er always be to the full compensated by the firm, but are improving immense price on Dalam negri. The cost of misplaced supports ( fishing, timber, biodiversity etc . ) and environmental damage are difficult to mensurate. Most of the wellness effects can not even be captured as they are chronic.

Based on the above, Freeport Company evidently provides a immense result on the Indonesian economic system but since it is a overseas investor this besides means that most of the low is taken away from the condition. Another primary issue is the fact most of their production is supplied as a Cu dressed ore for refinery to other states worldwide underfeeding yourself Indonesia from related support based work and induced benefits.

Luckily, due to societal and political force per unit place, governmental changes and more demanding environmental outlooks and ordinances increase the pressure per product area in Grasberg my very own and easy driving the company toward more environmentally friendly excavation habits ( mention )

installment payments on your 1 Social Impact

Sociable impact of Grasberg my very own operation chiefly touches 3 major problems: demographical modifications, substructure expansion, and human being rights misdemeanor. All of these concerns address impact on the autochthonal people, Papuan folk. A few of the alterations which the Grasberg acquire brought to the business could be viewed as betterments inside the life criterions such as substructure development. However about all of these alterations touch the inquiry of human rights maltreatments in many dimensions. ( talk about )

Irian Jaya, the state where Grasberg mine is situated, is sing a rapid populace growing as a result of the resettlement policies in the Indonesian regulators ( Wohl 2006 ). The my own was exposed in 1967 when there have been no streets and fewer than 1000 persons inhabited the us. Over show the mine drew in 120 1000 people from all over Dalam negri and now that serves as about the solitary one topographic point of employment to get local people ( Hills and Welford 2006 ).

Although the mine operation in the condition has bring about infrastructure creation such as edifice of tracks, an airdrome, a slot at Amamapare ( what exactly is it ), a ropeway, infirmary, lodging, colleges and other installs, presents a few batch of jobs and struggles, peculiarly, in man rights violations around the Grasberg mine.

The enlargement of excavation brought on a group of protests among local population since the societal influence was chiefly connected with distressing of the method of life of autochthonal persons, capturing their particular land, forestalling attempts to get justness throughout the tribunals, bankrolling the constabulary and persuasion them to resettle. These protests were the other percentage of human rights maltreatments which showed up in military truchement, colzas and slayings of dissenters etc . ( Hills and Welford 2006 ).

Indonesia , s National Commission in Human Rights concluded that clear and well-known human privileges misdemeanors experienced occurred in and around Freeport , s i9000 undertaking nation, including indiscriminate violent fatalities, anguish, inhumane or awkward intervention, improper apprehension, arbitrary detainment, vanishing, inordinate cctv surveillance, and damage of things. The committee noted these misdemeanors are straight associated with protection for the excavation concern of PT Freeport Philippines ( Whitmore 2006 ). Additionally such environmental affects as INGESTING WATER and dirt pollution are definitely the misdemeanor in the human right to adequate criterions of life and the directly to wellness.

( How to link with old sentence? ) Local autochthonal landholders, the Kamoro and Amungme, had been the topic of intimidation and intimidation. Their area have been exploited, natural solutions stolen and net incomes siphoned away by overseas shareholders and national elites ( Slopes and Welford 2006 ).

3. Environmental Impact

The environmental impact in the excavation activity of Grasberg acquire arises chiefly due to two beginnings. These are

  1. Without treatment chasing removal at the Aghawagon river ( IIED and WBCSD 2002 )
  2. Acid mine drainage ( Kennedy et approach. 1998 ) from reeling sum of waste rock generated

3. one particular Shadowings

The excavation functions at Grasberg started in 72 ( Mealey 1996 ). Riverine convenience of without treatment shadowings has become practiced since so ( IIED and WBCSD 2002 ). The IIED and WBCSD ( 2002 ) reference a 30 fold addition in the shadowings creation from 72 to 2150. As of 2002 about 230, 000 dozenss of shadowings are disposed off day-to-day straight from the mine in the Aghanwagon Riv ( IIED and WBCSD 2002 ). Fig a few shows a satellite image of mine country along with the river system through which the shadowings are disposed of.

The Aghanwagon is associated with the Ajkwa river program through Otomona river. Ajkwa river ultimately meets the Arafura sea. A relative analysis pertaining to selected parametric quantities with regard to mining outflowing criterions of US-EPA and Canada The fishing industry Act plus the Grasberg mine wastewater ( Annex you ) is definitely presented inside the tabular array 1 listed below ( IIED and WBCSD 2002 ).

Table 1 . Comparison of shadowings features

Grasberg

My own

US EPA criterion

Canada Fisheries Action criterions

pH

11. 3

6-9

6-9. 5

Total suspended shades ( mg/l )

558, 584

20

15

While ( mg/l )

three or more. 94

0. 5

Cu ( mg/l )

536

0. 15

0. 3

Hg ( mg/l )

, lt, zero. 003

zero. 001

A expression with the above listar array would do to grok the monolithic polluting of the environment load caused by the direct riverine disposal of neglected shadowings inside the environing riverine ecosystem. The negative environmental impacts are chiefly described through subsequent two careers.

3. 1 . 1 Trouble of deposit

The IIED and WBCSD ( 2002 ) evaluation shadowings financing up to 93 % with the deposit lots in the lake system. This has resulted in change of geo-morphology of the river system. ( Watson 99 ). Changes in the nearby lake classs of Pika, Uamiau and Aimua as reported by Indonesian Ministry of Inhabitants and Environment ( Kennedy et ‘s. 1998 ) further reinforce this state. Watson ( 1999 ) has approximated that below 5 % of the complete shadowings reach the Arafura Sea. The shadowing units have created a great unreal inundation field in the Ajkwa riverine system ( Kennedy et al. 1998 ). A obstruction of Ajkwa river in mid-1990s caused unreal inundation inside the river discipline ( Watson 1999 ).

In response to the obstruction from the river the organization have made levees to lodge and incorporate shadowings in the chosen inundation discipline of the water, termed as Ajkwa Deposition Region ( ADA ) ( IIED and WBCSD 2002 ). The levees are 40 miles long, built on both equally bank in the low prevarication inundation field of the Ajkwa river. It has resulted in the devastation of of 40 km2 of rain forest by 2002, and then entire loss in rain forest inside the ADA has become estimated to become 230 km2 ( IIED and WBCSD 2002 ).

In mid-1995 an American analysis worker include conducted studies of river deposits at Timika, which is the nearest human colony from the mine ( Kennedy ainsi que al. 1998 ). The results of these trial offers along with a evaluating of Down under and Fresh Zealand , s Nationwide Health and Medical Research Authorities , s i9000 ( NHMRC ) criterions for infected sites will be presented below.

Table 2 . Selected heavy metal concentration at riverine deposit in Timika

( Kennedy et approach. 1998 )

Copper ( ppm )

Zinc ( ppm )

Business lead ( ppm )

Ajkwa river first deposit

2290

53. 3

1 . 35

( NHMRC ) guidelines to get contaminated web page

60

200

300

Noteworthy to sum up tabular array is the inordinate sum of Copper taint. A more new survey simply by Brunskill ou Al ( 2004 ) has determined the écoulement of Copper mineral, Zinc and Lead in the Ajkwa water basin. The present fluxes in comparison with the background fluxes ( just before 1950 ) from the review are presented below.

Stand 3. Fluxs of hefty metals at Ajkwa lake basin ( Brunskill et al. 1998 )

Site

Cu flux ( mmol Cu m-2 month -1 )

Zn flux ( mmol Cu m-2 yr -1 )

Pb flux ( mmol Cu m-2 365 days -1 )

3

Backdrop

3

9

0. 68

Present

137

18

1 ) 5

5

Background

7. 8

18

1 . three or more

Present

204

28

2 . 2

a few

Background

6th. 6

eleven

1 . you

Present

129

21

1 ) 8

These outcomes are peculiarly dismaying for Copper. Considering that the addition in the back degree is usually every bit substantial as forty five times. This kind of study besides shows that this kind of rise in débordement absolutely syncs with the rise in production amount of the my own. Sing these high débordement rates from the selected steel, the concentration of these metals in the riverine deposits ought to be much higher right now as compared to deg indicated in Table 2 .

3. 1 . 2 Influence on H2O

The effect of shadowings disposal in H2O top quality of the Ajkwa River is terrible. Ortman and Subra ( 2k ) conducted field studies to evaluate extent of the pollution ( Annex We, table M ). These informations will be compared on two deg. The initial comparing continues to be made with consider to imbibing H2O top quality against World Health Enterprise ( 08 ) guide values ( Table four ). The second comparing is made with regard to toxic effects on marine biology ( Table 5 ).

Table 4. Comparison of H2O quality with regard to WHO ALSO guideline beliefs

Generator Discharge

Otomona Bridge

Middle ADA

WHO guideline value

As ( mg/l )

3. 94

0. 126

0. 045

0. 01

Cadmium ( mg/l )

0. 24

0. 007

0. 001

0. 003

Cu ( mg/l )

536

13. 13

4. 65

a couple of

Hg ( mg/l )

0. 003

0. 003

0. 003

0. 006

Se ( mg/l )

0. 294

0. 002

0. 002

0. 01

The above mentioned comparing clearly demonstrates which the river WATER is rendered non-potable by mine polluting of the environment. In fact in 1997, functionary of the local authorities warned residents against drinking of the river H2O and gave that a “D public heath evaluation ( Kennedy ain al. 98 ).

Table 5. A comparison of H2O quality with regard to toxicity

Generator Discharge

Otomona Bridge

Core ADA

Harmful degree

Start

As ( mg/l )

3. 94

0. 126

0. 045

1 . eighty five

Tisler and Zagorc-Konean ( 2003 )

Cadmium ( mg/l )

0. 24

0. 007

0. 001

0. 01

Mallett ain Al. ( 1992 )

Cu ( mg/l )

536

13. 13

4. 65

zero. 015

Tisler and Zagorc-Konean ( the year 2003 )

Hg ( mg/l )

0. 003

zero. 003

zero. 003

0. 000026

Canadian Water Quality Guideline

Se ( mg/l )

zero. 294

zero. 002

zero. 002

0. 002

Lemly ( 1992 )

Therefore , it might be seen from above that in addition to quicksilver the concentrations of heavy alloys at the manufacturing plant discharge position is above the aquatic toxic levels. Particularly for Cu, at all location the measured value is definitely higher than the toxic degree. Locals have reported disappearing of many species of fish from the river ( Chatterjee 1996 ). An fact-finding study by New York Times provides stated the river to get virtually unwelcoming of any fish ( Perlez and Bonner 2005 ).

several. 2 Acidity Mine Draining

3. 2 . 1 Commencing of Acid solution Mine Drainage

In the late phases of creation procedure of the Grasberg ore, native sulfur was lodged in fool’s gold venas ( Friehauf 2002 ). When oxidization takes topographic point in deposited shadowings with the ore, acidulent conditions can easily bit by bit develop when Cu sulfide nutrients are present ( IIED 2002 ). Underneath acerb conditions, metals in the ore may be mobilized. This acerb WATER bearing large metals, in the event that non decently treated, might do permanent pollution of groundwater ( TCE 08 ).

In 1993, it had been reported pertaining to the 1st clip that sedimentation sites in Grasberg contained ADVANCED MICRO DEVICES ( Perlez and Bonner 2005 ). Different types of Cu sulfide found in the ore can be illustrated by a sample ( Fig. 4 ). Taken from primary stockwork region of the Grasberg ore, birdwatcher pyrites ( brasslike yellow-orange ), bornite ( dark blue-purple ), and covellite ( violet or lighting azure ) is seen from the example of beauty. ( FCX 2004 ). The my own waste including these sulphide bearing minerals, particularly chalcopyrite and bornite, can physical exercise important environmental impacts inside the part ( IIED 2002 ).

a few. 2 . a couple of Environmental Effects of Acid Mine Drainage

The Grasberg mine has three billion dozenss of waste stone and shadowings ( Kennedy et approach. 1998 ). The local clime is just wet as holding doze pess of rain a twelvemonth, which will contributes to oxidization of the my very own waste and shadowings ( Perlez and Bonner june 2006 ). In Freeport , s taxation, AMD has become reported fluxing into near by watercourses ( Kennedy ain al. 1998 ). To hide with the task of ADVANCED MICRO DEVICES, neutralisation method is added to the attention process of Cu ( Golder Associates 1994 ). The organization says that this drainage is definitely treated by simply roll uping the overflow and neutralizing it with limestone ( Perlez and Bonner 2005 ). In a single study in congratulations from the mine, it is stated that the tailing river plus the deposition nation meets Indonesian and ALL OF US Environmental Protection Agency imbibing H2O criterions for dissolved metals ( IM 2009 ).

However , several independent surveies and audits show much less hopeful state of affairs. The impact on local H2O method is important. Neutralization capableness of limestone inside the milieus can be finite, and so once it really is depleted, big sum of toxic metals from the acquire will make their way into regional rivers and H2O program ( Kennedy 1998 ). It is revealed that light-green springs can already be found several stat mis away, which indicates the leach-out of Cu in the drainage offers traveled an extended distance ( Perlez and Bonner 2005 ). For instance, in the Wanagon H2O catchment basin, the acid leachate precipitates when neutralized with calcium supplements hydroxide, and accretion has started close to the lake ( IIED 2002 ), that might impact the deposit. Ajkwa Deposition Region and estuaries of the Arafura Sea may possibly besides have AMD ( Bryce 2005a ). Groundwater taint has been detected inside the Highlandss of Grasberg ( TCE 2008 ), and in 1999, air pollution of groundwater became crucial in Timika, a town lying below the mine ( Bryce 2005b ). Furthermore, the Lorentz park is yet another focal point or worry, because the AMD has contaminated the suspension springs in the area and afflicted its environmental diverseness ( TCE 2008 ). The Lorentz snow ( Figure 5 ) are besides at hazard ( McGinley 2008 ).

To sum up, the clime status in Grasberg aggravates the task of AMD, which has triggered pollution to H2O devices including the tailing river and deposition countries. The local World history site, Lorentz Park, is usually besides in hazard because of impact via AMD.

Decision

Annex We

Table A. Tailings features ( IIED and WBCSD 2002 )

Shadowings solids examination mg/Kg ( dry ground )

Flower discharge , slurry ( mg/l )

Dissolved

Complete

pH

10. 3

Quantity suspended hues

558, 584

Aluminum

28, 900

While

49

, lt, 0. 002

three or more. 94

Radium

0. thirty-three

, lt, 0. 0002

0. 24

Copper

6, 600

0. 002

536

Fe

56, 600

Lead

30

Manganese

1, 4 hundred

Mercury

0. 01

, lt, zero. 0003

, lt, zero. 0003

Selenium

3

, lt, 0. 002

0. 294

Zinc

200

0. 060

sixty one. 1

Table B. Water quality at several points at the Ajkwa deposition country

( Ortman and Subra 2150 )

Mill Launch

Otomona Connect

Mid WUJUD

US ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY criterion

ANZECC criterion

Attentiveness ( mg/l )

Blended

Entire

Blended

Entire

Blended

Entire

Quantity suspended hues

558, 58

12, seventy eight

5, 968

Light weight aluminum

As

, lt, 0. 002

three or more. 94

, lt, 0. 002

0. 126

, lt, 0. 002

0. 045

Cadmium

, lt, 0. 0002

0. 24

, lt, 0. 0002

0. 007

, lt, 0. 0002

0. 001

Copper

0. 002

536

0. 010

13. 13

0. 011

4. sixty five

0. 0029

0. 005

Fe

Lead

Manganese

Mercury

, luxury touring, 0. 0003

, luxury touring, 0. 0003

, luxury touring, 0. 0003

, luxury touring, 0. 0003

, luxury touring, 0. 0003

, lt, 0. 0003

Selenium

, lt, zero. 002

0. 294

, lt, 0. 002

, lt, 0. 002

, lt, 0. 002

, lt, 0. 002

Zinc

0. 060

61. 1

0. 002

1 . almost 8

0. 002

0. 536

Mentions

  1. Brunskill, G. J., Zagorskis, We., Pfitzner, J., and Ellison, J. 2005. Sediment and hint factor depositional background from the Ajkwa River estuarine Rhizophora mangles of Irian Jaya ( West Papua ), Dalam negri. Continental Space Research twenty-four: 2535-2551
  2. Bryce, R. 2005a. Freeport by Grasberg: ‘Devastated the lake system ,. News, The Austin Explain September 23, 2005. Homogeneous resource locator: [ hypertext copy protocol: //www.austinchronicle.com/gyrobase/Issue/story? oid=oid % 3A292540. [ consulted 29 Jan 2010 ]#@@#@!.
  3. Bryce, R. 2005b. Written in Stone. Information, The Austin texas Chronicle Sept. 2010 23, 2005. Uniform reference locator: hypertext transfer process: //www.austinchronicle.com/gyrobase/Issue/story? oid=oid % 3A292538. [ consulted 30 Jan 2010 ]#@@#@!.
  4. Chatterjee, L. 1996. A Cu mine of decease or dropped incrimination?. Inter Press Support ( Feb . ). Cited in Kennedy, D., Chatterjee, P., and Moody, R. Risky concern the Grasberg gold mine, 16. Berkeley: Commencing Underground, 98
  5. Earth Observatory ( EO ). NASA. Grasberg My own, Indonesia. Submitted August you, 2005. Standard resource locator: hypertext copy protocol: //earthobservatory. nasa. gov/IOTD/view. php? id=5718. [ consultd your five February 2010 ]
  6. Freeport-McMoran Copper , A, Gold ( FCX ). 2004. How stone involves life: step-by-step through the excavation procedure. hypertext transfer process: //www.fcx.com/envir/wtsd/2004/copper.htm. [ conferred with 29 By 2010 ]
  7. Freeport McMoran Birdwatcher , A, Gold Inc. 2008. Core Assets, 2008 Annual Record Phoenix: Freeport McMoran Copper , A, Gold Incorporation. URL: hypertext transfer protocol: //www.fcx.com/ir/AR/2008/FCX_AR_2008.pdf [ consulted 01 Feb 2010 ]
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  14. Hills, L. and Welford, R. 2006. Case Study: Auditing for Individual Rights: Freeport-McMoRan Copper and Gold in Papua. Business Social Responsibility and Environmental Management 13: 108 , 114.
  15. Worldwide Institute to get Environment and Development ( IIED ) and Community Business Authorities for Sustainable Development ( WBCSD ). 2002. Mining for the hereafter Appendix J: Grasberg riverine fingertips instance review. England: IIED and WBCSD
  16. International Institute for Environment and Creation ( IIED ). 2002. Mining for future years. England: IIED.
  17. International Mining ( IM ). 2009. The route to Grasberg. Wonderful mines”Grasberg. Foreign Mining 2009 ( Sep ): 56-61.
  18. Kennedy, D., Chatterjee, S., and Changing mood, R. 1998. Hazardous concern the Grasberg gold mine, 16. Berkeley: Undertaking Underground
  19. Lemly, A. D. 1992. Suggestions for computing Selenium informations from aquatic monitoring and assessment surveies. Environmental Monitoring and Assessment 28: 83-100
  20. Mallett, M. J., Grape vine, S., Murgatroyd, C., Whitehouse, P., Jerman, E., Ashby-Crane, R. Elizabeth., Fleming, R., Wwilson, T. and Sims, I. 1992. Toxicity of common contaminants to freshwater life. A reappraisal of the effects of ammonium hydroxide, arsenic, Cd, Cr, Cu, nitrile, Ni, phenol and Zn on autochthonal species. Bristol: National River Authority R , A, D examine Note 82.
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  22. McGinley, Meters. ( Matter Editor ), United Nations Environment Programme-World Conservation Monitoring Centre ( Articles Partner ). 2008. ” Lorentz Countrywide Park, Dalam negri. ” In: Encyclopedia of Earth. Eds. Cutler J. Cleveland ( Washington, D. C.: Environmental Information Parti, National Authorities for Scientific research and the Environment ). [ First published in the Encyclopedia of Earth February 11, 08, Last revised November 21 years old, 2008, Gathered February a few, 2010 ]#@@#@!. Homogeneous resource locator: hypertext transfer protocol: //www.eoearth.org/article/Lorentz_National_Park, _Indonesia. [ consulted 5 Feb . 2010 ]#@@#@!.
  23. Nationwide Aeronautics and Space Supervision ( NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION (NASA) ). 2003. Visible Globe a catalogue of NASA photos and lifes of our place planet. Uniform resource locator: hypertext copy protocol: //veimages. gsfc. national aeronautics and space administration (nasa). gov//16923/landsat_carstenz_29may03_28. 5m. jpg [ conferred with 5th Feb 2010 ]
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  25. Perlez, J., and Bonner, R. 2005. Listed below a huge batch of riches a river of spend. New York Moments ( New york city ), January 27.
  26. Tisler, T., and Zagroc-Koncan, T., 2003. Aquatic toxicity of selected chemicals as a
  27. fundamental standard intended for environmental categorization. Arh Hig Rada Tokiskol 54: 207-213
  28. The Authorities on Integrity ( TCE ). 08. To the Ministry of Financial , Recommendation of 12-15 February 2008. hypertext transfer protocol: //www.minesandcommunities.org/article.php? a=8809. [ consulted Jan 29 2010 ]#@@#@!.
  29. Watson, M. 99. External Environmental Audit, PT Freeport Philippines operations
  30. Irian Jaya, Dalam negri. Steamboat Suspension systems, CO, US.
  31. Whitmore, A. 2006. The emperor , s new apparels: Environmentally friendly excavation? Journal of Clean Production 14: 309 , 314. ( beginning WEB ADDRESS ) Galya
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  33. Community Health Enterprise ( WHOM ). 08. Guidelines pertaining to imbibing WATER quality.

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