Turkmenistan previously also known as Turkmenia (Russian:????? ), is definitely one of the Turkic states in Central Asia. Until 1991, it was a constituent republic of the Soviet Union, theTurkmen Soviet Socialist Republic (Turkmen SSR). Turkmenistan is among the six independent Turkic states.
It really is bordered byAfghanistan to the southeast, Iran to the south and southwest, Uzbekistan to the east and northeast, Kazakhstan to the north and northwest and the Caspian Sea to the western. Turkmenistan’s GDP growth level of 11% in 2010 ranks 4th in the world, but these characters are be subject to wide margins of mistake. 5]That possesses the world’s last largest reserves of gas resources. Even though it is rich in organic resources in most areas, most of the country is covered by the Karakum (Black Sand) Desert. The Turkmen government operates because a single-party program.  Turkmenistan was ruled by President for Life Saparmurat Niyazov (called “Turkmenbasy” — “leader of the Turkmens”) until his sudden loss of life on 21 December 2006. Gurbanguly Berdymukhammedov was elected the new president on 11 Feb 2007.
The territory of Turkmenistan has a long background, as soldires from one disposition after an additional decamped right now there on their method to even more prosperous areas. The region’s written background begins having its conquest by simply the Achaemenid Empire of ancient Persia, as areas was divided between the satrapies of Margiana, Khorezm and Parthia.  Alexander the Great conquered the terrain in the 4th century BC on his way to Central Asia, surrounding the time that the Silk Roadwas established as a major trading route between Asia and the Mediterranean Location. citation needed] About 80 years afterwards, Persia’s Parthian Kingdom established its capital in Nisa, right now in the and surrounding suburbs of the capital, Ashgabat. After replacement of the Parthian disposition by Persian Sassanids, an additional native Iranian dynasty, areas remained area of the Local empire for many centuries.  In the seventh century ADVERTISEMENT, Arabs conquered this region, introducing Islam. The Turkmenistan region soon came to be known as the capital of Greater Khorasan, if the caliph Al-Ma’mun moved his capital to Merv. citation needed] In the center of the 11th century, the Turkoman-ruled Seljuk Empire concentrated the strength in the territory of modern Turkmenistan in an attempt to expand into Khorasan (modernAfghanistan). The empire broke down in the second half the 12th century, and the Turkmen lost their independence when Genghis Khan took charge of the eastern Caspian Sea region in the march western. For the next eight centuries, the Turkmen people lived below various empires and fought against constant inter-tribal wars. Little is written about of Turkmen history preceding to Russian engagement.