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Why is it essential to address the 9 11 in


“Fact or fictional works? Which is the simplest way to handle a celebration as important as 9/11? ” – Michael Billington.

In the wake with the 9/11 horror attacks, mass media and non-fictional responses were rife, the of the using Twin Towers is one that has become inserted in the global consciousness. Yet , amongst these kinds of ‘factual’ depictions, there come about a new genre of hype: 9/11 fictional. Indeed, novelists, playwrights and poets almost all came forwards with their endeavors at responding to the misfortune through the channel of the literary arts. Add DeLillo’s Slipping Man[1]and Michel Vinaver’s September eleven, 2001[2]are simply two instances of these replies. However , 9/11 fiction can be described as significantly troublesome genre. The requirement to convey a thing that goes beyond vision, combined with the perceived obligation to present the event respectfully, renders this a difficult process to deal with. Aimee Pozorski epitomises this kind of perceived problem of the literary artist: “Those artists who have choose splendor must solution for their aestheticization of physical violence. Those designers who choose minimalism need to answer because of their reductive symbols. Those music artists who choose nothing need to answer for his or her silence”[3]. In light of this, it can be contended that fictional works is unable to behave as an appropriate respond to 9/11, which nonfiction may be the only practical means by which usually to do so. Eileen Billington, in the review of Rupert Goold’s anthology of 9/11 playlets, poses the very problem which underpins this conversation: “Fact or perhaps fiction? Which can be the best way to take care of an event while momentous as 9/11? inch[4].

It is attractive to argue that art, of both literary and other varieties, has no place in response to 9/11. That the tries of the designer to capture the wedding are futile bids to symbolize that which cannot be represented. From this view, a huge portion of the ‘un-representable’ matter surrounding 9/11 lies in the quandary of attempting to recreate and show human feelings. Certainly, the emotional excitation of 9/11 spanned far beyond people who experienced it first-hand, the televising from the event delivered all the universe spectators. This kind of mass feeling of distress and tremendous grief may be regarded to show up outside of the scope of artistic representation, especially given the comparative recentness from the attacks. Debbie Lloyd suggests that Septembre eleven, 2001 stands as a primary example of feeling being shed in translation: “He layers the mass media accounts and speeches within a precise, unemotional – also cold – manner that produces the play difficult to approach”[5]. Certainly, Vinaver eliminates the add-on of level directions, and makes no make use of punctuation. This individual offers zero indicators regarding tone or action, this individual gives just the words themselves in a natural, undramatised state. Although this is true for the entirety from the play, the consequence of this technique are particularly evident as Vinaver imitates key occasions in the fb timeline of the 9/11 attack. Right away before the depiction of the first collision between Flight 10 and the North Tower, the actual last phrases of airline flight attendant Madeline Sweeney appear: “Oh my god wow my god”[6]. The absence of a great exclamation level, or indeed any sign that the phrases should be mixed with feeling, seems to solidify the notion of a distinct ‘coldness’ underpinning the play.

In contrast, DeLillo’s falling gentleman is a book which is mostly focussed with the emotional consequences of the survivor. Indeed, imaginary protagonist Keith Neudecker and his attempts to deal with his encounter occupy the core from the novel. The plot clears with Keith in the thicker of the disorders, we see the horror and chaos on a lawn, but we see it just through the sight of the leading part. Christina Cavedon supports and expands upon this notion as your woman suggests that “DeLillo portrays the events and their wake exclusively with regards to trauma and post-traumatic stress disorder”[7]. Here, Cavedon underlines the implications of viewing 9/11 through the eye of a survivor, as the lady suggests that anything that is described is done thus through the lens of trauma. This is particularly evident while Keith witnesses the fall of the North Tower, and the narrator states that “”That was him flowing down, the north tower”[8]. By creating personal connections between Keith and the North Tower, it is clear that the novel can be unconcerned with all the global, or perhaps national consequences of 9/11. What it is more worried about with is definitely the internal, emotional repercussions intended for the individual. Additionally, it notable that Keith can be not the only character in whose emotional quest underpins the narrative, the aftermath for his ex-wife Lianne, even though experiencing the celebration only not directly, is given extensive consideration. Mandsperson Mars-Jones goes so far as to suggest that her journey is more saturated simply by emotional fractures than Keith’s: “Lianne wasnt in the podiums that dropped, but the girl with the one whom comes nearer to breaking down”[9]. Without a doubt, she obsesses over the multimedia in a put money to come to terms with what offers happened, and subscribes towards the sweeping generalisations which condemn the whole of Islam. This is apparent as the girl attacks her neighbour, Elena, for playing Middle East music as well loudly, accusing Elena to do it like a personal assault. The frailty of Leanne’s mental state is definitely delineated, as she loses the ability to separate that which is usually harmless and this which demonstrates personal hatred. In contrast, Keith’s ’emotional aftermath’ is much less emotional, being a sense of disconnectedness acts as his coping mechanism. It is interesting to notice that Leanne is depicted as the more emotionally broken by the problems, yet she never experiences them immediately. In light with this, DeLillo generally seems to suggest that, in the wake of such an unmatched tragedy, all of America have entitlement to their own survivor’s journey. Contrary to Vinaver, DeLillo seems to efficiently underpin the void of representing human being emotion and trauma simply by converting the general public spectacle of 9/11 to a deeply personal one. Consequently , it can be argued that Septembre 11, 2001 and Dropping Man act as two text messaging which are unsuccessful and achieve confronting the void of emotional representation respectively.

However , if perhaps 9/11 is truly ‘unrepresentable’, then simply to deduce that this concern applies exclusively to the fictional response can be contradictory, non-fictional responses, specifically those produced by the mass media, are equally as problematic. It can be tempting to argue that direct recordings in the attacks and their aftermath, in both online video and audio format, portray an undeniable truth. Nevertheless , this simple truth is limited to the visual, that displays the aesthetic component of 9/11, however it places it against a backdrop of selective circumstance. Jean Baudrillard, in his content “The Spirit of Terrorism”, alludes to this notion of context staying superimposed on the image: “In this case, after that, the real is superadded to the image like a bonus of terror, such as an additional frisson…the image can there be first, and the frisson of the real is added”[10]. This is reminiscent of Badurillard’s 1981 discourse in hyperreality and simulacrum, through which he argues that ‘reality’ has become second to the photo. That it is a malignant phenomenon which distorts and disjoints the ‘real’, before the image relates to “mask the absence of a profound reality”[11]. Certainly, he goes on to suggest that “Reality and hype are insondable, and the fascination with the attack is generally a desire for the image (both its exultatory and its huge consequences happen to be themselves mainly imaginary)”[12]. Yet, it is this superimposed sense of ‘catastrophe’ which pervades the of 9/11, in Baudrillard’s view, virtually any deeper that means or significance has been misplaced been misplaced behind the ‘spectacle’. Jean Genet, in the 1983 composition recounting his experiences by a retraite camp, makes a powerful touch upon the nature of press representations. Coming just two days after the Sabra and Shatila massacre, which saw the mass slaughter of Palestinian refugees by militant causes, he underlines the inability of media imagery to effectively capture the “flies neither the thick white smell of death”[13]. Which has a sense of broader significance, he says that “A photograph features two proportions, so will do a television screen, neither can be walked through'[14]. Below, Genet sums up the notion that, when severed from the situational and mental contexts of ‘the moment’, an image turns into disjointed. Inside the absence of it is original context, a void is created, this void is left accessible to exploitation by simply both the press and those using a political plan. Indeed, Baudrillard delineates the tendencies of the media to pursue an agenda which is separate from fact as he states that “There is no “good” use of the media, the media are part of the event, they are section of the terror, and in addition they work in both directions”[15]

In light of this, the style employed by Vinaver throughout Septembre 11, 2001 can be examine in a fresh light. His omission of stage direction or punctuation acts as a component of the minimalist style which usually underpins the play. Drafted in the weeks following the episodes, and between the height of the proceeding media storm, the emergence of the minimalist imaginative response allowed for a sense of length from this press fuelled ‘spectacle’. By blocking all perceived emotional and situational framework from the incidents of 9/11, and burning them down to a “precise, unemotional”[16] point out, Vinaver essentially reopens the ‘void’. This individual removes individuals elements of 9/11 which have so often been altered, but omits to offer a substitute, instead, this individual affords his audience the independence to interpret their particular meaning. Giuseppe Sofo aligns himself with this watch as he suggests that “The “deaestheticization” of Vinaver’s theatre is usually transmitted throughout the aesthetic choice to leave art out of artwork, to transform mcdougal into a translator of truth, rather than in a creator, and it had allowed him to re-represent a real possibility that had been drowned in its own overexposure”[17]. Indeed, the ‘artistic’ nature of Vinaver’s play can be interesting, as his visual lies in what he gets rid of as opposed to what he brings. What this individual achieves is essentially a reverse abstraction, all that survives his minimalist filtration system is that that has been indisputably true to begin with. Sarah Lloyd, although initially ranking at chances with this kind of view and commenting about Vinaver’s conveyance of ‘coldness’, goes on to combat this, while she suggests that: “by this, he requires spectators to participate in the production by taking their thoughts and creativeness into play”[18]. Subsequently, she realigns herself with all the notion that, through the omission of sound emotion, this individual allows for a brand new level of personal emotional contemplation. Although this means of imaginary response is no more ‘realistic’ than its non-fictional equivalent, its integrity allows that to adhere even more strongly into a sense of ethical responsibility. Art, contrary to media and also other ‘ nonfiction ‘ mediums, is self-conscious of their artifice, it will not attempt to present itself as being a work of undiluted real truth.

Time for the aforementioned words and phrases of Sofo, he ends his affirmation by discussing 9/11 since “a fact that had been drowned in its personal overexposure”[19]. Indeed, media responses to 9/11 apparently revolve around one particular pivotal picture: smoke billowing from the Universe Trade Center, as a second plane techniques for accident. This graphic is one which inundated followers after the attack and, to a lesser level, continues to do this until today. Here, Sofo questions the efficiency of the inundation. Anneke Smelik ditch herself with Sofo’s notion, whilst likewise offering evidence of reasoning: “an impressive image only has impact when we will no longer see it, because the repetition of these images has a dulling or numbing effect”[20]. Both Sofo and Smelik suggest that the excessive circulation with the aforementioned picture of the plane as well as the smoking dual towers, instead of continuously elevating audience response, actually starts to diminish this. In Sept. 2010 11, 2001, after relaying the final moments of voyager Todd and flight attendant Madeline, the inevitable moments of damage are visually excluded. Inside their place are merely audio effects which echo the appears of impact, these are mentioned by the best thing to stage directions in the entire play: “SOUND: THE CRASH OF AN AIRPLANE”[21]. Because of the notion that the poignancy of a constantly repeated picture is reduced, together with Sofo’s suggestion that 9/11 is now subject to “overexposure”[22], Vinaver’s omission from the actual effect between the aeroplanes and the systems takes on a strong significance. Without a doubt, Vinaver deliberately avoids virtually any direct aesthetic representation of either crash. In doing this, this individual prevents his play via contributing to the “overexposure” on this image, and forces the group to experience the incidents in a way that they have not turn into ‘numb’ toward.

Alternatively, although he does not directly depict the collision, DeLillo does show the subsequent damage. As Keith passes through the “smoke and ash”, the “stink of fuel fire”, and the “figures in glass windows a thousand ft up, losing into free of charge space”, the presented seems fitting together with the smoking systems of the core media image. However , what DeLillo endeavours to do is always to avoid the downsides of the image and the tv screen that Genet underlines. Indeed, this individual endeavours to write a fictional new which can actually “be strolled through”[23], the “thick white smell of death” is exactly what DeLillo handles to reconstruct. Perhaps the many poignant example of this arises during the final chapter. The narrative results to the time of the disorders, albeit a rather earlier justification in the fb timeline, and graphically depicts the death of Keith’s good friend and co-worker, Rumsey: “Something came trickling from the part of Rumsey’s mouth, just like bile…He found the signifies on his brain, an indentation, a put mark, deep, exposing natural tissue and nerve”[24]. DeLillo, while not omitting the symbol of “overexposure” just as as Vinaver, effectively gives it within an alternative method to the press. He will not reopen the void of context, he simply reimagines the actual media has instilled by attempting to create a three-dimensional fact. DeLillo provides this actuality through the sight of a survivor, whose fictional nature renders him a mouldable figure, Keith could be manipulated as required to explore multiple layers of 9/11 devastation.

An additional issue facing the post-9/11 literary motion is the probability of undercutting the earth narrative by placing a great exaggerated quantity of concentrate on one celebration whilst obscuring both the preluding and proceeding contexts. This extensive context is usually emphasized simply by Baudrillard as he suggests that the issue of terrorism “reaches far over and above Islam or America, on which efforts are being made to focus the conflict in order to create the delusion of any visible conflict and a solution based on force”[25]. Here, Baudrillard suggests that the recently discussed picture of 9/11 is usually one which considers only a disjointed stage show, it presents the impossibility an effect without a cause. This individual also implies that this vision is purposely used to reflect focus far from a cause in order to offer an illusion of justice for the episodes. However , Baudrillard also underlines the failure of this diversion: “we know that they achieved it, but we all wished because of it. If this is not taken into account, the wedding loses any symbolic dimension”[26]. To get Baudrillard, a failure to understand the symbolism in the image in light of its wider circumstance serves to instigate additional acts of terror and war. Hype and cinema writers inhabit a position that enables for the topic and exposure of this wider context, consequently , 9/11 fiction can yet again offer a even more valuable moderate of response than nonfiction. A Key Part of Vinaver’s function is the use of multiple angles from which to view the event, and it is one which permits him to fulfil his ‘responsibility’ in examining the importance of trigger and result. This is perhaps most obvious as he layers the political voices of Bush and Bin Stuffed on top of one another. Their speeches intersect, with each innovator speaking various lines. The rapid pace of these changes in focus forces the group to consider each mans words because of the other’s, and shows distinct parallels between them. In doing this, Vinaver acknowledges that the seed products of terrorism sprout via both sides of the conflict. For instance , both commanders perceive their very own people while having been wronged, and equally seek retribution and rights. Indeed, Vinaver suggests a great echo of Baudrillard’s position on the ‘War on Terror’: “This is definitely terror against terror”[27]. Furthermore, with the use of this layering technique, Vinaver infuses a feeling of irony into their words. Soon after Bin Filled speaks the text “May Our god shield us”[28], Rose bush says “May God continue to bless us”[29]. These are generally taken from genuine speeches through the two leaders, both succumbed the awaken of the problems. By taking both of these excerpts and placing them alongside, Vinaver delineates the drollery of the conflict. As Bin Laden is motivated to wage war within the “infidels” of America within the behalf of God, Rose bush addresses similar God and asks for his continued ‘blessing’. Perhaps, with regards to a world narrative, this implies that both Rose bush and Trash can Laden are using God because an excuse to pursue even more self-serving agendas.

Even so, Pankaj Mishra argues that almost all post-9/11 works fail to use the power of the writer, that they evade their particular responsibility to research the roots of such serves of assault and to expose the uncut world narrative in a way that the media would not. Indeed, in his article “The End of Innocence”, this individual questions the ability of 9/11 fiction to discuss the event regarding its permanent political and ideological triggers: “Composed in the narcissistic heart of the western, most 9/11 fictions seem unable to admit political and ideological idea as a interpersonal and psychological reality in the world the kind of fact that cannot be lowered to the person experience of rage, envy, sexual frustration and constipation”[30]. In particular, Mishra criticises the novelist’s focus on the domestic aftermath with the survivor when he poses problem: “Are we all meant to imagine domestic discord as a metaphor for post-9/11 America? inches[31]. DeLillo appears to sign up for this accusations throughout Falling Man. Certainly, his give attention to the household aftermath is just about the subject of significant criticism. In the wake of the episodes, Keith and Lianne’s marriage begins to fracture, this is often go through as an effort to reflect the bone injuries of a post-9/11 America, in itself device rest of the community. In contrast, in DeLillo’s primary, non-fictional respond to 9/11, printed in Harper Magazine 90 days after the function, he pointedly acknowledges the complexity from the wider community narrative: “Terrors response can be described as narrative that has been developing above years, only now becoming inescapable”[32]. Nevertheless , In Falling Man, he seemingly disregards this idea, opting rather to focus on the “individual experiences”[33] of Keith and Lianne. Mishra showcases this initial, nonfiction response of DeLillo to inform his reading of Falling Guy as he argues that “he remains strangely incurious of their pasts and their societies, and he makes little attempt to analyse, in the light in the biggest ever before terrorist atrocity, the origin and appeal of personal violence”[34]. Here, Mishra underlines the contrast among DeLillo’s two responses, the comparison suggests that his personal understanding of 9/11 is misplaced in translation from non-fiction to fiction.

Nevertheless , in contrast to the view outside the window of Mishra, DeLillo would not entirely disregard the broader value of extremist terrorism, he does grapple with the need for cause and effect. Much like Vinaver’s interpretation of Trash can Laden, this individual does therefore through the implementation of the terrorist as a point of view character. If implementing real life characters or perhaps superimposing fictional representations, the characterisation of the people responsible for this kind of suffering is usually difficult to get around. If dealt with incorrectly, writers become at risk of accusations of misplaced sympathies or a lack of respect to get the lifeless. DeLillo him self has indicated a conflict between his reluctance to consider the viewpoint from the terrorist fantastic perceived “novelistic responsibility”: “I didnt think I could tell the entire account without the presence of in least one of the men — or a imaginary version of just one of the men — who was involved in those attacks”[35]. Here DeLillo challenges virtually any notion that it can be unethical to consider the motivations of terrorist, instead, he suggests that that it is a necessary step toward an understanding in the attacks. Certainly, without an recommendation of cause and effect, 9/11 can be stripped to a senseless tragedy, to measure it as being a product on this cause and effect should be to make sense from it. Indeed, DeLillo depicts the character of Hammad. He is the imaginary counterpart with the terrorists who also hijacked the planes, and portions of the narrative happen from his point of view. As opposed to the two-dimensional renderings of the ‘evil’ assailants almost generally presented by the media, DeLillo endeavours to humanise the terrorist. This individual does this by providing an insight in to the conditions which lead person to commit this kind of extreme work of violence. It is clear that Hammad believes Islam to be underneath attack, and seems to truly believe that what he is undertaking is for the good of their people. He can influenced simply by Mohammed Atta, one of the few real life characters to look in the novel and a ringleader of the 9/11 problems. Atta tells him that “The community changes initial in the brain of the guy who wants to modify it”[36], and promotes him to focus on their ‘mission’. This underlines the ability of young people coming from countries condensed by physical violence to be motivated by the assure of belonging, and the attract of a martyr’s afterlife. Baudrillard underlines the need for the exploration of characters such as Hammad, who provide an insight in to the private world of the terrorist: “The enormous success of such an strike presents problems, and if we are to gain a lot of understanding of that, we have to slough off the Western perspective to see how are you affected in the terrorist’s organization, and their heads”[37].

In addition to the keeping of Bin Laden’s words against those of Bush, Vinaver also gives the terrorist a tone. Like DeLillo, Vinaver chooses Atta since the terrorist to whom this individual allows this kind of voice. Even though he makes little make an attempt to humanise him in the way that DeLillo humanises Hammad, this individual does convey the ritualistic nature of his prep for his own death. This solidifies the notion that 9/11 is far more than a senseless, standalone take action of assault, rather, this can be a part of a far larger photo of religious fundamentalism and cultural unrest. Shelter Essif actually suggests that Vinaver’s terrorists will be more united in their objectives compared to the American persons: “Vinaver’s September 11 presents a radiophonic projection of a voice of America, the disjointed lien of a vision that is unpresentable except through newspaper head lines, and the simply sense of community inside the text’s polylogic narrative can be developed as a primitive, fundamentalist, terrorist one”[38]. , the burkha issue intended for writers attempting to capture the essence of a real-life act of assault is the portrayal of the victims and survivors. In this article, DeLillo and Vinaver comply with two in contrast, but both as possibly problematic, literary routes. Throughout September 14, 2001, Vinaver utilises actual victims since characters, this contributes to his style of fake, as he endeavors to reconstruct the events of the day. In fact , he goes beyond this, when he aestheticizes written about speech of actual 9/11 victims. A fitting case occurs since, as briefly aforementioned, the play echoes the last recorded words of American Airlines air travel attendant Madeline Sweeney. Vinaver condenses it of the call made by Sweeney to her administrator just occasions before Airline flight 11 mixed with the North Tower: “I see normal water and buildings/ Oh my personal God oh yea my God”[39]. Furthermore, the final recorded words of Flight 93 passenger Todd Beamer, voiced before his attempts to overpower the hijackers, can also be imitated simply by Vinaver: “let’s roll”. Guy Gavriel Kay likens the implementation of real-life personas by copy writers to a “contemporary pandemic”[40]”, characterized by “a general chafing of the ethical value of privacy and a seite an seite emergence of the widespread impression of entitlement to look at – or to utilize – the lives of others”[41]. In light with this, the rendering of Beamer and Sweeney’s final terms can be seen while an intrusion, the last living moments of another man are possibly the most private of all. Yet , it is significant that these occasions undergo little editing. Typically, Vinaver simply imitates, building a collage of real in its rawest contact form. As his sources will be taken mainly from the multimedia and other nonfictional responses, the notion of his ‘intrusion’ is definitely diminished.

DeLillo, however, veers additional towards the fictional as he prevents the specific portrayal of real-life personas. Instead, he dilutes the representation of fact with enough fiction to increase its palatability. Yet , the insertion of fictionalised characters including Keith Neudecker and his girlfriend, Lianne, is visible to shift focus away from the suffering of actual patients in favour of creating rounded characters whose identity can be altered to achieve virtually any intended remarkable effect. However , Sofo rejects this notion, as he shows that “If type characters have got constantly lost ground to round heroes in the cinema over the last hundreds of years, the real world features sometimes completed the opposite”[42]. Here, Sofo implies that the real world stimulates those two-dimensional individuals who match the ‘mould’ of societal expectation. Regarding 9/11, placing the focus on this kind of easily delicate survivors allows the media to propagate their own suggestions on the function. However , simply by opting to place fictional instead of real-life characters within his 9/11 establishing, DeLillo prevails over the real-life promotion of the “type characters”, in order to show those “round characters” who are able to act and perceive things differently. Furthermore, DeLillo’s fictional protagonist enables him to evade the anonymising effect that artistic depictions can easily have on the real-life specific. Indeed, the reduction of people who knowledgeable 9/11 – both survivors and deaths – to ‘artistic representations’ can be seen to obscure their humanity. On the other hand, in the case of Falling Man, DeLillo attempts to reverse the anonymization from the ‘factual’ responses to 9/11, which are often more focussed for the emotional response of the spectator rather than the memorialisation of the patients. With regards to the novel’s title, DeLillo draws on Richard Drew’s famous photographic photo, similarly named “The Dropping Man”. Printed just one day time following the attacks, the image appeared in the New York Times alongside a caption by reporter N. 3rd there�s r. Kleinfield: “A person is catagorized head 1st after jumping from the north tower of the World Trade Center. It was a horrific look that was repeated inside the moments following your planes hit the towers”[43]. This caption, although partnered with a ‘real’ picture, epitomises the anonymising a result of an even with mass fatalities. Laura Frost both supports and extends upon this notion because she argues that “”The Falling Man” ends up being a generalized memorial to invisiblity, a cenotaph or “empty tomb”, while the spectator’s response becomes particularized”[44]. Indeed, Frost juxtaposes the anonymization of the photograph’s subject against the caption’s awareness of his mass of watchers, the “horror” invoked by image is usually attributed to the sight of the man in contrast to his own experience. John Freeman also adheres to the view as he suggests that “the human element became supplementary to that of the spectacle it created” [45]. Because of this, DeLillo’s rendering of your fictional yet fully fleshed out survivor of 9/11 takes on a deeper value. He attempts to reassert a sense of style and identity to those whom, much just like “The Slipping Man”, have been reduced into a ‘monument’ intended for the mass experience.

Artistic replies to 9/11, in all of their broadness, endeavour to achieve an array of things: politics protest and trauma getting back together amongst all of them. However , seldom do they will attempt to straight recreate the big event. Even in the matter of Septembre 14, 2001, Vinaver’s play acts as a template for the creativeness. His specific collage of real-life speeches and toasts, audio and media statements illustrate the wedding as if it were stripped of all feeling, he will not attempt to reconstruct 9/11, but rather to make sense of an function by eliminating the conflicting interplay of emotion. Similarly, DeLillo describes the events of 9/11 typically through the napping lens of your survivor who appears to be experiencing Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder, object rendering his book a self conscious diversion from a devoted representation of events. Nevertheless , non-fictional replies, particularly the ones from the press, come not any closer to a faithful rendering of the problems. Instead, they strip away the surrounding context, giving only a catastrophic picture on which to project a selective circumstance. In light with this, art provides a channel through which to reassess these lost pieces of context, and also to subsequently sound right of the ‘senseless’ by means of the imagination. Arin Keeble underlines the importance in the creation of art in answer to distressing events as he suggests that “because 9/11 was such a visible spectacle, papers and publications sought literary authors – experts in exploring the individual condition through the written term – to interpret or narrate the trauma”[46]. Indeed, “interpretation” is the epitome of what imaginary and theatrical responses to 9/11 are worried with. They should not end up being read since faithful renderings of truth, but rather because ambiguous representations which seek to provoke a wider understanding of an event which in turn seems to sit beyond knowledge.


Baudrillard, Blue jean. Simulacra and Simulation. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press, year 1994.

Baudrillard, Jean. “The Spirit of Terrorism”. Le Monde, The fall of 3, 2001. In The Soul of Terrorism and Other Essays, translated by simply Chris Turner, 1-34. London, uk: Verso, the year 2003.

Billington, Michael. “Decade – review”. The Protector, September on the lookout for, 2011. Seen April 17, 2017. https://www. theguardian. com/stage/2011/sep/09/decade-review.

Cavedon, Christina. “Falling Man’s Get away Into Hyperreality”. In Social Melancholia: ALL OF US Trauma Discourses Before and After 9/11, by Christina Cavedon, 323-384. Leiden: BRILL, 2015.

DeLillo, Add. Falling Guy. New York: Bob and Schuster, 2007.

DeLillo, Wear. “In the Ruins of the Future”. Harper Magazine, January, 2001. Utilized April twenty two, 2017. http://harpers. org/archive/2001/12/in-the-ruins-of-the-future/.

DeLillo, Add. Interview with Melissa Bloc. All Things Considered. NPR, June twenty, 2007. http://www. npr. org/2007/06/20/11223451/falling-man-maps-emotional-aftermath-of-sept-11.

Essif, Lee. “The (Supra-) Global Spectacle of American (Non-) Community”. In American ‘Unculture’ in French Drama: Homo Americanus and the Post-1960 French Resistance, by L’ensemble des Essif, 266-193. Basingstoke: Springer, 2013.

Freeman, John. “DeLillo’s 9/11 Novel Turns Trauma in Art”. The Guardian, September 11, 2007. Accessed April 16, 2017. https://www. theguardian. com/books/booksblog/2007/sep/11/terroristattacks.

Frost, Laura. “Still Existence: 9/11’s Dropping Bodies”. In Literature After 9/11, edited by Ann Keniston and Jeanne Follansbee Quinn, 180-20

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