Excerpt from Exploration Paper:
Cause of Provided Conflict
Inside the aftermath of 911 so that as an effect in the ‘War upon Terror’, religious beliefs can be clearly seen as main cause of armed conflict. This kind of views, however , have fallen on suitable for farming ground, pursuing the massive debates about Samuel P. Huntington’s clash of civilizations thesis, and the improved analytical awareness of the interface between religious beliefs and discord throughout a lot of the 1990s. Even though few analysts will argue that religion can be described as more prominent factor in discord now than before, the alteration of consciousness is in alone a significant transform. This reflects, as Oliver McTernan points out, the “opinion of a range of academics that have recognized in the midst of social, famous, political, ethnic and economical factors the salience of religion also” (McTernan 2003: 87-88).
Religion may possibly feed turmoil when the normative method is considered to legitimize the use of physical violence. As Elise Boulding offers pointed out, nevertheless , there is a duality in religious cultures because they entail symbole of the “holy war” plus the “peaceable kingdom” (Boulding 1986). We could include that in most religions there is a actual tension between two (see: Appleby 1996: 823). Hence, any try to explain the outbreak of violence solely with reference to the normative fundamentals of religion can be deemed to failure, because the model of these fundamentals is essentially competitive. non-etheless, the scriptures, narratives and rituals of a religion are often attracted upon to look for legitimacy intended for warfare as well as the use of physical violence within a system of meaning of your higher order. The application of these resources may sometimes be blind, and while dogmatism can simply serve as a vaccine against manipulation and misuse, in addition, it feeds uncompromising attitudes once religion is usually drawn in to the conflict.
To illustrate, the major differences between Protestants and Catholics in Northern
Ireland in europe when it comes to their very own interpretations of Christian dogmas have had enormous social and political repercussions. Fronts are hardened by fact that in Protestant groups there is a good conviction that republican physical violence has in least the tacit blessing of the Catholic Church (McTernan 2003: 88-89).
Religion could also lead to turmoil because it identifies unambiguous identities, hence tagging fault lines between numerous groups of persons. The reliability of this look at is reinforced by the degree to which disputes in the post-Cold War time have seemed to follow personality boundaries that are ethnic or religious, or maybe a combination of both equally. Exclusive spiritual identity is usually expressed within an absence of intermarriages, such as among Muslim Serbs and Christian Croats, among Shiite and Sunni Iraqis, or between Catholics and Protestants in Northern Ireland. Reinforced with a logic of war, a cessation of intermarriages shows increased segregation, hostility and skepticism between conflicting organizations. It is the moment religiously identified boundaries intended for inclusion and exclusion match with other identification markers, that the dividing line between ‘Us’ and ‘Them’ becomes many clear-cut. It’s this that the Norwegian theologians Sturla Stalset and Oddbjorn Leirvik touch upon when talking about the relationship among religion and politics:
That adherents of religion have always differed among themselves in political matters, is a truism. But in instances when religious identification politics increasingly asserts itself around the globe, we need to remind themselves that the separating lines in ethics and politics perform in fact not really coincide with religious distinctions (Stalsett, Leirvik and Beyer 2004: 10-11 ).
Whenever we focus on the dividing lines between community religions, it can be true that those rarely overlap with political fault lines. However , the assertion by Stalsett and associates turns into more problematic if we maneuver our concentrate to the standard of denominations, sects