The 23rd Treatment of the Foreign Poplar Commission The System of 2n Pollen Formatiom in Populus? euramericana and P.? popularis Speaker Jin-feng Zhang (Jennifer) [email, protected] edu.

cn Beijing Forestry University P. R. Cina OUTLINE you Introduction two Materials and Methods three or more Results and Analysis 5 Discussion you Introduction 1 . 1 Polyploid breeding is an important part in poplar breeding? Triploid white colored poplar woods Triploid and aneuploid mixed-style models in Populus trichocarpa? S. deltoides? Triploidy were found in the cultivar poplar imitations in section Aigeiros Advantages 1 . two Mechanisms of 2n gamete formation in plant??? Premeiotic doubling Omission of the first or second meiotic section Abnormal spindle Abnormal cytokinesis Nuclear blend FDR ( first department restitution ): Contains non-sister chromatids SDR ( second division restitution): Contains two sister chromatids 1 Introduction 1 . three or more The objective of this kind of study? Poplar can produce 2n gamete obviously or by simply artificial debut ? initiation ? inauguration ? introduction Elucidation from the cytological components of 2n gamete development has been almost never in poplar.

To detect and elucidate the mechanisms of 2n pollen formation in diploid poplar Results from this research may offer a more effective method for polyploid breeding in poplar in section Aigeiros.?? 2 Materials and Methods 2. 1 Plant materials? Populus? euramericana Four male : EA1, EA2, EA3 and EA4 One female: A? P.? popularis The offspring of (P. simonii? (P. nigra var pyramidalis + Salix matsudana mixed pollen) ) One Male: P? The crosses A? EA1, A? EA2, A? EA3, A? EA4, A? P 2 Materials and Methods 2. 2 Microsporogenesis observation 2. 3 Flow cytometry analyses 2. 4. Chromosome counting 2. 5. SSR analysis 3. Results and Analysis . 1 Cytological determination on 2n pollen formation 10 11 5 6 8 9 Table 1 The expected and observed rate of 2n pollen grains Sporads Code of poplar Dyad Triad Tetrad Total Expected rate of 2n pollen % Observed rate of 2n pollen %? 2 EA1 EA2 EA3 EA4 P 539 163 689 2189 308 341 1818 682 4093 484 6629 5528 6354 1691 7308 7509 7509 7725 7973 8100 4. 96 7. 69 7. 14 36. 17 3. 15 0. 03 0. 09 10. 08 29. 41 2. 35 26. 056** ** Indicated significant difference between expected rate of 2n pollen from sporads sample and the observed rate of 2n pollen from pollen sample at P<, 0. 01. The percentage were converted to arcsine data before? 2 test. . Results and Analysis 3. 2. Detection of polyploid offspring of 2n pollen Diploid 61# Diploid 61# Triploid 65# Triploid 65# 0 50 Channels (FL2-A- 100 150 1. 27) 200 250 Diploid 61# Diploid 61# Triploid 73# Triploid 73# 0 50 Channels (FL2-A- 100 150 1. 27) 200 Diploid 61#?? 61#+ 61# Diploid?? 75# 75# Tetraploid Tetraploid 75# 0 50 Channels (FL2-A- 100 150 1. 27) 200 250 3. Results and Analysis 3. 3. SSR determination on mechanism of 2n pollen formation M >+ M EA4>A EA4 4x 75# 2x 2x 2x 4x 2x 2x 75# >4x M EA4 + 75# 2x 2x 2x A M >+ 4x 2x 2x 2x EA4 A 75# (a) Primer: 14: M >+ EA4 A (b) Primer: 41 4x 2x 2x 2x (c) Primer: 47 75# + 4x 2x 2x 2x EA4 A 75# M (d) Primer: 68 (e) Primer: 105 Table 2 Segregation of alleles at loci where the male Populus? euramericana. (Dode) Guinier parent EA4 is heterozygous Code 14 41 47 68 105 SSR primer GCPM_2453-1 GCPM_3345-1 GCPM_3559-1 GCPM_432-1 ORPM_29 locus 1 2 3 4 5 6 EA4(>) AB AB AB AB A0 B0 A(+) CDE AC B A C0 DE 75#(4x) ABCDE ABC AB AB A0C0 B0DE 421(2x) 422(2x) 423(2x) ADE AC B A C0 BE ADE AC AB A C0 BE ADE AC AB A C0 BE These letters do not necessarily correspond to discrete alleles(e. g. the “Eband for GCPM_2453-1 may be the non specific amplification ) and ORPM_29 primer detects two loci, 0 means a null allele. . Results and Analysis 3. 3. SSR determination on mechanism of 2n pollen formation M >P + 3x 3x 2x 2x 2x A 65# 73# M >+ 3x 3x 2x P A 65# 73# 2x 2x (a) Primer: 13 M >P + A 3x 3x 2x 65# 73# 2x 2x (b) Primer: 68 (c) Primer: 105 Table 3 Segregation of alleles at loci where the male P.? popularis parent P is haterozygous Code 14 68 105 SSR primer GCPM_2453-1 GCPM_432-1 ORPM_29 4 AB BD AD AD BB AB AB locus 1 2 3 P(>) AB AB 00 A(+) CAD C C0 65#(3x) CAB AIR CONDITIONING UNIT C0 73#(3x) 321(2x) PICKUP’S CAB BC C0 AD AC 00 322(2x) 323(2x) ADVERTISEMENT AC C0 AD ALTERNATING CURRENT 00

These letters do not always correspond to discrete alleles(e. g. the “Cband for GCPM_24531 may be the not specific amplification) and the ORPM_29 primer picks up two loci, 0 means a null allele. 4. Discussion 5. 1 Mechanisms of 2n pollen creation 4. a couple of The natural reason for high percentage of 2n pollen 4. three or more The formation of 2n female gametes in poplars of section Aigeiros 4. 4 Polyploidy identity using molecular markers some. 5 Effects of polyploidy for genetic research and tree mating