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Hybrid determine, mammoth off white, ca. forty five, 000-28, 500 BCE , To make: divide dry big tusk, scarpe into shape (using sharp blad) , 50 percent human, half animal= man dressed because animal intended for hunting purpose Bear, Chauvet Cave, ca. 30, 000-28, 000 BCE , side paintings, hand silhouettes show animals , took benefit of walls , eg.

bump creates bear’s shoulder , discovered in year 1994 So-called “Venus of Willendorf,  limestone, ca. twenty-eight, 000-25, 500 BCE , no naturalism- stress virility emphasizing reproductive features= male fertility object Seen horses and human hands, Pech-Merle Cave, ca. sixteen, 000-15, 1000 BCE , shamanism- perception in spirit world utilized through alternative states of consciousness , hand dots- can find how many designers painted in a single cave , saliva, water, blood- MIXED- applied with brush, finger, moss, destroyed stick, down Rhinoceros, wounded man, and bison, Lascaux Cave, los angeles. 15, 000-13, 000 BCE , perception of power ” pathetic, no electricity ” effective Hall in the bulls, Lascaux Cave, florida. 5, 000-10, 000 BCE , individual never occupied Lascaux give (no objects, remains, instead, bear bones, torches) , not optical images, rather

COMPOSITE- many details of animal Stonehenge, florida. 2, 90 BCE, Salisbury Plain, Wiltshire, England , marked moving of time/seasons , megalith(stone forming prehistoric monument) in circles= CROMLECHS , simple structure= content and lintel Babylonian deed of sales, clay with cuneiform writing, ca. you, 750 BCE , refined pictogram pushed in number of wedge-shaped signs= CUNEIFORM , used for dministrative accounts, beautifully constructed wording , invention of producing WEEK two SUMERIA, EGYPT Remains from the “White Temple on their ziggurat, california. 3500-3000 BCE Uruk, War , Tripartite layout , from 3sides- can see etiqueta ascent of priest, commanders , stairs- counter clockwise around mound= indirect approach= Mesopotamian serenidad archietecture Tube seal of priest-king nourishing sacred lamb, ca. 3300 , cylindrical made of natural stone with opening running through centre , design designed into area of seal- when pressed in gentle clay= invert image unfold

Statues coming from Abu Serenidad, Tell Asmar, ca. 2700-2500BCE , might be worshipers , exaggerated eyes- responding to The lord’s awe, preventing evil Pain relief Panel of Hesy-ra, los angeles. 2660 BC , wood stele nonnaturalistic , 3 thousands years of same system of exhibiting body , same composite resin artificial method of showin g body , SHOWS that it absolutely was much more essential to follow tradition , rather than realism, point is not that they can not make naturalistic art , this tradition was selected on purpose Imhotep, Step Pyramid and Necropolis of King Djoser, ca. 681-2662 BCE , made for King Djoser-ruled 2630-2611- california king [email, protected] was NECROPOLIS-cemetery -encircling whole complex is rectangular stone wall stretchign over mile in length and 33ft excessive -DOMINANT FEATURE= STEPPED PYRAMID-oriented to cardinal points of compass , zygarat- elevate forehead in mesopotamia- this is not a temple yet a grave , this is image of palace meant for eternity , there were a figurine of full in middle , assumed that heart and soul could live in a staute of full , figurine enclosed in a room in center with windows and show out rest of complex so king may live eternily , amazing archeitecture

Regal Standard of Ur, florida. 2600 BCE , bottom= charioteers ripped bu oagers. Riding over enemies , middle= prisoners stripped of clothing, shield are escorted , top= prisoners delivered to central figure- head is crooked canvas , banquet= top= seated intended for banquet, cups raised to music played by harp , SOLAR PANELS represent Kingship Prince Rahotep and Nofret, 2580 BCE , carved from limeston- softer than diorite- painted skin tones, hair, clothes, jewelry , rahotep is definitely government recognized and better half is dependent of king- ritualized gesture completely frontality , rigid frontality norm pertaining to royal and elite statues

Pyramids of Menkaure, 2533-2515 BCE, Kafra, 2570-2544 BCE, and Khufu, 2601-2528 BCE, Giza pyramid only a part of necropolis- associated with dead , King djoser had a mudbrick palace manufactured from wood, off-road brick, reeds , has archeitect which in turn suggest how important buildling is , pebbles cut precicly so that they can interlock together and create smooth surface , pyramid 440ft tall- forty five stories Menkaure and Princess or queen Khamerernebty 2, 2515 BCE , carved in one piece with an upright back slab, rigid frontality , nearly identical elevation, left ft . forward Ruler is more muscular and 50 percent nude and queen covered in thin dress hemmed at ankles= smooth floors and high polishestablish presence of unity , guy both arms down and woman forearms around man- dependent Seated Scribe, los angeles 2400 BCE, limestone -frontal, stiff in traditional positions , in earlier society- fat and marks old could be signs of honour- experience , sallow cheeks, sagging jaw, loose stomach= interpersonal status: achieve career, eats well, relies upon subordinates to do physical work with his part Head associated with an Akkadian ruler, ca.

2250-2200 BCE naram-sin (sargan’s grandson) ” expanded Akkadian empires , explited art to reflect and establish power= abstract hair and beard= strong symmetry= contrl and order , damage carried out maybe by Medes- who have invaded Nineveh= gaughe eye, ears and nose hacked= as if actually attacking person Great Ziggurat of Ruler Urnammu, Ur, ca. 2100 BCE , Mud bricks: clay combined with vegetable and straw in order to avoid clay cracking when dry out , off-road mixture put in wodden frames- knocked away and backed under sun , joined wall with wet clay , not really durable therefore sealed with BITUMEN buttresses= articulate walls= impression of strength, lines= add energetic energy, 95 steps Grabsäule with the Rules Code of Hammurabi, ca. 1760 BCE , TOP- hammurabi appears in relief- standing with arm raised in handmade before the enthroned sun-god Shamash- god’s shoulders emanate sun rays- god extends palm, holding rope ring plus the measuring fly fishing rod of kingship= THIS GESTURE unifies scene’s composition and purpose of both leading characters , smaller sized scale of Hammurabi compared to seated god= “shepherd” instead of god himself

Female porcelain figurine, 12th-13th lignage (ca. 1650 BCE), faience , subject placed in tombs along with dead , from tomb in Thebes, represents a schematized woman- legs take a look at knees, minimize her mobility/ or legs maybe not essential to her function , painted cowrie-shell girdle to emphasize belly and hips, delineate breats and pubic area= function could have been as virility objects, enhance family continuity , blue-green color of faience associated with virility, regeneration and goddess hathor Temple of Hatshepsut, california. 478-1458 BCE , Fresh Kingdom funerary temple= Hatshepsut- female full , glorious pyramid- mastaba and terraces extending in to cliff face , climbing white limestone courts, linked by vast ramps over a central axis , trees and shrubs lined access way and paired sphinxes faced the other person Queen Hatshepsut kneeling, los angeles. 1473-1458 BCE , Hatshepsut kneeling because she makes offering , because kingship is male office, she wears regalia of a man king(kilt, fake beard and nemes headdress(striped cloth worn by kings))

Akhenaten and his family, 1355 BCE , akhenaten with family- consort Nefertiti and 3 most well-known daughters ” sun life-giving beams radiate downward with hands at their terminals- reed content suggest scene is within yard pavilion stocked with wine beverages jars , king and wife sit facing every single othe in stools- keep daughters, in laps, in arms, centralizing composition with animated gestures- contrast to STATIC top quality of moments of also , focus on daughters’ childishness marks change

Akhenaten, 1353-1335 BCE , break drastically long-established exhibitions for describing royal subjects- different proportions- narrow shoulders, lacking musculature, marked potbelly, wide hips, generous upper thighs, large lip area, distinctive nostril, chin, slim eyes help to make face recognizable. Queen Tiy, 1352 BCE Akhenaten’s mother- used dark wood of yes tree with precious metls and semiprecious stones for particulars , downturned mouth and modeled lines running from sides of nose to mouth= progressing years , initially full wore gold jewlry and silver headdress decorated with golden cobras= identify her with funerary goddesses Isis and Nepthys , wig embellished with glass beans topped with plumed overhead Queen Nefertiti, 1348-1335 BCE , Nefertiti’s bust- covered over limestone core and painted , left attention not inished- bust remained unfinished yet elegance still derives from sculptor’s control of geometry The considering of the heart and view of Osiris The Book of the Useless of Hunefer, 1285 BCE books of dead , instructions means escape the truly amazing beast and make this through afte rlife , needed to get ceremony and weight their particular heart with ostrich feather- if free from sin- heart should be lighter weight than ostrich feather Temple of Ramses II, Abu Simbel, los angeles. 1279-1213 BCE Ramesses entrusted most new projects- which include monumental serenidad , ruler marked his claim to the land of Kush in Lower Nubia(origin of outdated, viroy and enimal pelts) , among statues’ legs- small figures represent member of royal family members.

INTERIOR- heavy figures of Ramesses- 32ft Fugitives bridging a river, ca. 883-859 BCE , walls protected with large scale stone bosse , story images- painted in locations for emphasis- glorified california king with comprehensive depictions , archer and two girls look on with hands raised NOT ANY RELATIVE LEVEL, primary aim of scenes to recount certain enemy conquests Gate of Citadel of Sargon II, with lamassu, 742-706 BCE (photo taken during excavation) , lamassu- great guaridian figures , powerful and terrifying deities to anyone who might get into , convey king’s afraid authority- tall horned headdresses, deep-set eyes, powerful muscularity of legs and physiques Reconstruction of Citadel of Sargon II, Dur Sharrukin, ca. 21-705 BCE , Sargon II had plan for city of Dur Sharrukin where he had regal residence , unexcavated yet estimate to hide a rectangular mile , enclosed within an imposing mud-brick wall , 30 courtroom yards- 200 rooms Big cat hunt, los angeles. 645 BCE , ruler slay lion , means of demonstrating electric power over beast , EGYPT- royal lion hunts were events that took place in palace reasons , roal attendants introduced animals via cages to a square created by soldiers with glasses , habit symbolic featuring king’s strength and offering as metaphor for army skills

Colour pallette of Ruler Narner, california. 310-3125 BCE , BEST CENTER: hieroglyphs spell out narmer’s name , BESIDE hieroglyphs= cow brain represent heavens goddess , LEFT= King Narmer holds enemy by hair and raises mace- sign of kingship , KING- would wear white crown of Top Egypt and belt of kilt weighs tail of bull- symbole of electric power kings put on as part of ceremonial dress-larger range establish authority , BOTTOM-enemy stripped of clothing- humiliateion , LURKING BEHIND king worker carries king’s sandals CORRECT of Narmer appears falcon holding rope , ADDITIONAL SIDE- california king wears reddish colored crown of LOWER egypt- by sandal carrier and long-hared figure= FOLOWS 4 people holding something to inspect bodies of prisoners with their heads among their lower limbs , CENTRAL register= 2 animals roped by man figure- turn long necks to shape a circle in composition , symmetrical, balanced= ma’at , LOWER- bull repetition. king harm city and tramples down enemy , COMMUNICATE SIMPLY BY!! ombine a number of diff types of indicators on one thing , a lot of literal illustrations and representational representations- bull=strength , MESSAGE: king put unified UPPER and LOWER EGYPT- though human, he occupied work office displayed by placement of name in sky WEEK 3 ANCIENT GREEK LANGUAGE Amphora with meander pattern and funeral, ca. 750 BCE , vase coming from cemetery- called Dipylon Vase- one of a team of large boats Athenians applied as funerary markers over burials- slots in its foundation allowed mourners to serve liquid offerings during funerary rituals- ashes of dead inside floral vases placed

Black-figured amphora Exekias, Achilles and Ajax Playing Dice, florida. 540-530 BCE , black-figured technique- decorated design in black silhouette against red clay- incised details in design with needls, painted white-colored and magenta over dark-colored to make selected areas stick out , Athenian amphora- fixed by Exekias- both knitter and painter- painting reveals Homeric characters Achilles and Ajax playing dice- episode not can be found in living through literary sources- two figures lean on their particular spears, shields stacked behind them , black silhouettes generate rhythmical formula, symmetrical about table in center

Kouros, ca. 540-525 BCE (means youth) , male- slender, broad-shouldered, remaining leg forwards, arms by side, clenched fists, shoulders, hips and knees happen to be level Kore, ca. 530 BCE (wearing a peplos) (means maiden) , female- -BOTH HAVE GOT stylized wig-like hair, display techniques and proportional systems used by Egyptian sculptors- stiff, frontal, 4 distinct factors, no backslab, (GREEK: space between varieties, public nudity acceptable intended for males/not females. EGYPT: characters embedded in stone. compelled nudity on slaves) Red-figured amphora: Euthymides, Dancing revelers, ca. 510-500 BCE , black-fig. imit artist to incision intended for detail- develop red-figured tech- scence certainly not dependent on profiles- freedom with brush translates into freedom of movement in dancing- range of poses, twisting body, age of intense and self conscious experimentation Red-figured kylix (wine cup) Douris painter, Eos and Memnon, ca.

490-480 BCE , Eos, empress of dawn lifts limp body of her dead son, Memnon whom Achilles killed- Douris(maker)- traces curves of limbs beneath drapery and balances vigorous traces with more sensitive strokes- useless weight of memnon’s human body contrats with lift of Eos’ wings Kritios Boy’, ca. 480 BCE (marble) ” contrapposto , pounds shifted creating asymmetry in two factors of his body. Leg of ahead leg is lower than the various other, right hip is pushed down and, left hip up and out, axis of human body not straight vertical collection, reversed S-curve , stands at ease- CHIASTIC POSE (balanced asymmetry of relaxed natural stance) , muscle tissues suggest action Temple of Hera 2 at Paestum, ca. 460 BCE building made of DORIC order simple capital, zero base, content sit directl on step platform , columns appearance massive, very little space between them , archeitects worried about areas falling straight down Zeus or perhaps Poseidon, los angeles. 460-450 BCE, bronze , nude fermeté from marine near Ancient greek coast- 7ft tall- depicts spread-eagled guy figure in action of throwing- Zeus sending your line thunderbolt or Poseidon tossing his trident. -sculptor catures and clashes vigorous actions and organization stability- communicate god’s awe-inspiring power.

Displays artist’s appreciate of body in motion and also understanding of strength of bronze= enable god’s forearms to loosen up without support. Warrior, california. 450 BCE, found in the sea off of Riace, Italy , over-life-size number found in marine near Riace- used lost-wax technique- not only cutting apart stone- musician build clay-based model- exactly where marble absorb light, dureté surface reflect= explore area texture pertaining to hair and skin Both roman copy after a bronze original by Myron, Diskobolos, florida. 50 BCE , dureté, Myron compacted a sequence of movements in to single cause, achieved through violent distort of upper body that brings the arms into same place since legs -Pose conveys substance of actions by presenting coiled estimate perfect stability Iktinos and Kallikrates, Parthenon, 447-432 BCE , building made when ever athens was at war- created by profit military- dominating temple on Akropolis- Perikles conceived this to play focal role in cult of Athena- primary center of cult practice remained on Erechtheion(north f Parthenon)- built of gleaming light marble- Are usually Iktinor and Kallikrates , OCTASTYLE(eight-column arrangement)- continuous toned frieze runs around all sides in variation of Ionic style- depicts procession moving by west-east- horsemen jostle with musicians, normal water carriers, sacrificial beasts- numbers overlap to produce illusion of crowd- encompassing colonnade gave impression that visitor may approach serenidad from the sides.

, shows up less massive than BROW OF HERA II by PAESTUM= content more thin, capitals smaller sized and less flaring-cornice projects fewer. East freize of the Parthenon, ca. 440 BCE component to festival organised to prize Athena- exalts mortal Greeks by deicting them in space reserved for divine and mythological moments. , towel is a fresh robe for Athena(woven simply by Athenian girls and depicting Athen’as sucess against leaders in gigantomachy) Model of Pheidias, Athena Parthenos, ca. 438 BCE , enormous sculpture of Athena by sculptor PHEIDIAS- was standing with one hand supporting a personification of Victory, and shield sleeping against her side. Determine of off white and gold(combo known as CHRYSTELEPHANTINE)- supported by solid wood armature- valuable Three goddesses, from the east pediment with the Parthenon, florida. 38-432 BCE , Hestia, Dione and Aphrodite (recent, Leto, Artemis, Aphrodite)- pediment figures stuck in building- forms happen to be strong and solid- masterpiece of swirling drapery, clothes cling to bodies beneath as though wet- drapery not stick to lines of body- there is twisting around legs(struggle with them) Brow of Athena Nike, 427-424 BCE, Akropolis, Athens (ionic order) , has a bas- thinner columns- taller- fluting on articles is like womens robe or perhaps skirt- basic is like shoes- more feminin and elegant- tiny brow of athena nike- godess of wisdom and war- nike= Éxito

Akropolis, Athens, 421-405 BCE , focused on goddess Athena Erechtheion, 421-405 BCE, Akropolis, Athens , Mnesikles’ project-architext had to handle difficult terrain- built to provide several religious functions- included four rooms and basement on european side- two porches attached to its flanks- one specialized in Poseidon confront north and it is main entrance- smaller one particular juts away toward Parthenon

Erechtheion, Patio of the Maidens 421-405 BCE, Akropolis, Athens , 6th caryatids of columns support roof- signify women of Caryae (city-state in Peloponnese that produced alliance with Persians in Persian wars)- when battle over, Greeks took women as slaves- architects THUS designed photos of these girls to bear the responsibility of their state’s dishonor in perpetuity Nike, from the colonnette of the Serenidad of Athena Nike, ca. 10-407 BCE , Nike taking off sandles-about to stomp holy ground-wings keep her stable thus she performs awkward act with elegance and ease- Pheidian style evident in deeply minimize folds of her “wet look clothes clinging with her body and fall in deep swags among her lower limbs. Grave grabsäule of Hegeso, ca. 410-400 BCE , Pheidian style recognizable in drapery and also in easy planes of faces- treat of making clear in forms fathest away from viewer- servant’s pinky finger, veil lurking behind Hegeso’s correct hsoulder= pain relief merges with background strengthening illusion that background is usually empty space rather than stable surface.

Both roman copy following an original simply by Praxiteles, Aphrodite of Knidos original coming from ca. 340-330 BCE , first pictures monumental figurine of godess in Greek world- gonna bathe, or perhaps rising coming from bath- right hand, your woman covers nudity in gesture of modesty, grasping to get robe with her left- head slightly turned and so does not participate viewer’s eyes directly Both roman copy following an original by simply Praxiteles, Hermes and the newborn Dionysius first from ca. 320-310 BCE , Hermes holding toddler Dionysos- sandals=roman in style- chiastic present is exaggerated and creates fuly comfortable curve of torso- fresh more than athletic

WEEK four ROMAN & ITALY Ara Pacis Augustae, 13-9 BCE , Republican practice of commissioning story reliefs to record particular events- bosse mounted on public buildings and monuments(ara pacias augustae) Soberano procession, Perroquet Pacis Augustae, 13-9 BCE below: Parthenon frieze, florida. 440 BCE , add-on of women and small children= denote significance of dynasty along with referring to meaning legislation Augustus enacted in promoting child-birth among the list of elite. Roman copies of your Greek initial by Lysippos, Portrait of Alexander the truly great, original late 4th C.

BCE , to have idealized quality- aeroplanes are easy especially about brow and individuality come out in unmanageable hair, increased at fron (cowlick) and twist of head- does not engage with a viewer- features distant gaze The Écartement of Persephone, wall painting in Tomb 1, Vergina, ca. 340-330 BCE , from small tomb in Vergina- subject=abduction of Persephone- appropriate to funeral setting-Pluto-carries away Persephone to be queen-pluto seizes Persephone into speeding chariot-her handmaiden rearing back fright The Battle of Alexander plus the Persians mosaic copy of ca. 00 BCE of your Hellenistic portrait of los angeles. 315 BCE , roman copies of Greek wall painting- could possibly be copy of Philoxenos’ painting- depicts Darius and the running Persians on right and damaged left-hand portiong reflect figure of Alexander- mosaic- follows four”color scheme(yellow, red, black, white)- widely used in late 4th 100 years Portrait, called “Brutus,  ca. 300 BCE rome- develop after greek style-form art that became popular with this period= GENUINE PORTRAIT lips thin, lips one within the other, overbite= similar idea of ancient greek language emphasis on person = perhaps a republican best, showing elf as the almighty, flaws, suggest philosophical posture Epigonos of Pergamon (? ), Dying Gaul trumpeter, perhaps a Roman backup of a bronze original of ca.

230-220 BCE , found in Sanctuary of Athena on Akropolis of Pergamon- sculptor recognizes enemy since Gaul through his hairy hair and moustache and by torque about his neck(braided gold band)- dies tragedy quietly to ground/struggling to prop imself up as blood pours by wound in chest. Drunken old girl and market woman, Both roman copies of originals of ca. 00 BCE , depict unidealized and genuine everyday life- genre=Hellenistic realism- Roman- crouches on ground, clasping wine bottle, head flung far back-wrinkles cover confront, skin on her exposed make and torso sags with age- wears buckled tunic= identify as member of wealthy social class- (other sculptures of this kind focus on old-fashioned life on poor) Nike of Samothrace, ca. one hundred ninety BCE , celebrates naval victories-nike-means victory- of Eudamos- Rhodian marble of sculpture’s base recommend sculpture originates from Rhodes.

Triumph goddess seems to be landing on prow of ship as if to give crown of victory after Eudamos- probably about to fly, massive wings soar away behind her, wings help to make statue seem weightless despite mass of stone- none leg holds the body’s complete weight. Wonderful Altar of Zeus by Pergamon, california. 166-156 BCE , Eumenes II or perhaps Attalos 2 built that to remember territorial wins over Pontos and Bithynia and establishment of a grand victory festival(Nikephoria). Altar was high on a podium with large square encloser defined by Ionic colonnade. extensive staircase by fron supplied access. Was standing on Pergamene Akropolis- reconstructed in Berlin-frieze encircle base-extends 400ft long and 7ft in height-subject is struggle of Gods and Leaders Athena as well as the giants, in the frieze in the Great Church of Zeus at Pergamon, ca. 166-156 BCE , muscular bodies rush at each other, overlapping, entwining, wings beat and barments blow in breeze or twist around all those they bathrobe, texture clashes with smoothness of giants’ flesh. -giants’ emotion ” agonize in torment of defeat- eyebrows creased in pain

Sanctuary of Dicha Primigenia, Praeneste, early first C. BCE -in italy- made to observe military win of sola- oracular center where priests interpreted work will- architec used tangible to mould structures more than entire surface of hillside and to art spaces- haven ascend in 7 levels- BOTTOM=basilica&senate house- UPPOER TERRACE=rose in grand crescendo-4TH=colonnaded exedrae framed altars Wall artwork from the villa of Publius Fannius Synistor at Boscoreale, mid very first.

Century BCE , second style- applied architectural scenery to open wall structure into a imagination realm recommend another community beyond space Portrait of a man, early 1st century BCE , wrinkles cover face, etching deep crags into face and brows- depicted unique marks=warts, connected nose, diminishing hairline Serenidad of Portunus, Rome, los angeles. 80-70 BCE , get Greek forms- in Italic style- stands on podium and engaged lateral articles emphasize anterior approach- Ionic coluns include slender amounts of Classical Greek wats or temples Scenes of Dionysiac unknown cult, House of the Tricks, Pompei, florida. 0-50 BCE , initial of MAU’S FOUR TYPES OF PAINTING-(4 types of roman wall painting=: used paint and stucco to imitate costly colored marble paneling- reduce part of walla(the dado) and upper section above the cornice level happen to be painted in rich mottled colors to resemble amazing stone

Wall membrane painting of your garden, Property of Livia at Primaporta, ca. twenty BCE fresco -dining room- painted on all of the surfaces and ceiling so it appears like you happen to be in a garden- frescos upon all sides- light reaching different kinds of leaves- birds- leaves move in the wind- going sensation Augustus of Primaporta, possibly a later duplicate of an unique of california. 0 CE , depicted as beautiful youth- looks in battledress with arm raised in gesture of address- , romans garment sculptures, calm gesture- armor- pictures of his family members, battles- signify life in armor- showing status- romans show specificperson- more politics purpose, leading war with hand, battle suits, heigh preist, leader-CUPID=rides dolphin- acts as swagger to strengthen marble- dolphin eoked sea Wall structure paintings, Ixion room, House of the Vettii, Pompei, 63-79 CE , fourth style- united areas of all three earlier styles tocreate extravagant effect- combine imitationmarble paneling, framed mythological scenes resembling panel pictures arranged into wall structure Atrium of the home of the Vettii, Pompei, second century BCE-79 CE , eilte Both roman house-distinct feature=atrium-square of rectangular central corridor lit simply by opening in roof with shallow pool(impluvium) in floor to collect rainwater-airy quality=grandeur upon house, aventure kept portraits of forefathers

WEEK 5ROMAN & BYZANTINE Icon of the Madonna Enthroned, late thirteenth c. CE, tempera Interior, Cathedral of Monreale, Italy, 1180-1190 CE Interior, St . Mark’s, Venice, begun 1063 CE Dome with variety of the Pantocrator, 11th c. CE Chapel of the Dormition, Daphni, Greece Crucifixion, mosaic, 11th c. CE House of worship of the Dormition, Daphni, Portugal Emperor Justinian and his family and friends, 547 VOTRE mosaic, San Vitale, Ravenna Empress Theodora and her attendants, 547 CE variety, San Fondamental, Ravenna Anthemius of Tralles and Isidorus of Miletus, Hagia Sophia, Istanbul (previously Constantinople), 532-7 CE San Vitale, Ravenna, 526-47 VOTRE Interior, San Vitale, Ravenna, 526-47 CE

Icon of Christ, 6th c. CE, encaustic Iconoclasm Mausoleum of Galla Placidia, Ravenna, 425-50 CE Good Shepherd, variety, Mausoleum of Galla Placidia, Ravenna, 425-50 CE The great Shepherd and Stories of Jonah, fourth c. CE Catacomb of Ss. Pietro e Marcellino, Rome Constantine the Great, early 4th hundred years CE , large and deeply carved eyes- see something past this world-soft modeling to cheeks and mouth-more all-natural than tetrach-full cap of hair and absense of beard this reference to Trajan and Augustus Santa Costanza, Rome, california. 350 VOTRE Interior of Old St Peter’s, The italian capital, built 324-400 CE (drawing by Jacopo Grimaldi, 1619) , Arch of Constantine, Rome, 312-315 CE people of ancient rome dedicated triple-bayed arch to Constantine close to colosseum to celebrate 10 year anniversary- largest soberano arches- little of sculptural relief in its surface area was specifically designed for this monument- , free-standing Dacian capties on attic room originated in Trajan’s Forum while did Trajanic Frieze about ends of attic and inside central bay- Arch of Constantine, 312-315 VOTRE detail of Hadrianic rondels and Constantinian relief Constantine addressing a large group, Arch of Constantine, 312-15 CE , figures audience the scene- heads are disproportionatel large- bodies stocky- poses unusually rigid- lines cared about flat surface render anatomical details- second row of heards arranged previously mentioned first indicates recession- The Tetrarchs, 305 CE, porphyry during tetrachy-portraiture took substantially abstract quality- two porphyry sculptural teams mounted on columns- each group shows two tetrachs in elaborate military dress with bird-headed blade hilts and flat pannonian caps=represent powerful Illyrian expert class-proportions are squat and nonnaturalistic, face features fuzy rather than customized.

=portrait suggest authority exists in office of emperor not in who contains office. =sameness of pictures underlines the tetrachs equality-porphyry-hard Egyptian rock reserved for imperial use Hadrian’s Villa, Tivoli, 130-138 VOTRE , emperor built terrific residence pertaining to self- created on site of His party villa- villa’s form follo natural line of landscape but massive earthworks rearranged surfaces to accommodate buildings ” water is a common feature- in private pools, running channels=adding sound, movement, reflecting light, offering greatness in summertime heat-canal have been known as CANOPUS Pantheon, The italian capital, 117-125 VOTRE Augustus’ right-han dman=Agrippa created first Pantheon-name intended it as brow to gods- fire ruined this brow and Domitian built reconstruction- Pantheon right now work of Trajan’s architect=APOLLODORUS- completed in Hadrian’s reign-

In roman instances pantheon was raised on a podium at south end of large rectangular court-octastyle facade- dome pierced with 27ft hole(OCULUS accessible to sky)- 143ft(total interior level is also dome’s diameter=sphere=eternity and perfection Trajan’s Column, Rome, 106-113 CE (height 37 m) , support gilded statue of emperor- turning through in house of base is a spiral staircase leading to a looking at platform- acknowledged as work of Apollodorus-role as velvedere(viewing station) Titus riding in succeed, Arch of Titus, 81 CE voyages triumphal chariot, high previously mentioned a crowded, overrun crowd- race horses appear in profile but chariot is frontal=illusion that retraite is approaching viwer prior to turning sharply- behind emperor-personification of triumph crowns him for his success Retraite of spoils from the Forehead in Jerusalem, Arch of Titus, seventy eight CE , soldiers bring booty through the streets which include seven-branched menorah and other holy furniture looted from Temple- panel represents important move toward spatial illusionism Colosseum, Rome, 72-80 CE , held more than 50 1000 spectators-concrete-faced with travertine- eighty arched gates led in to building presented with tuscan columns- second story, Ionic columns presented second set of arches, third engaged Corinthian columns. WEEK 6

Sinan, Mosque of Selim 2, 1569-74, Edirne, Turkey Sultan-Muhammed, Allegory of Heavenly and Earthly Drunkenness, from a manuscript from the Divan of Hafiz, 1529 Detail of a carpet by Iran, ca. 1575-1600 Behzad, Poor gentleman refused admittance to a mosque, from a manuscript from the Bostan of Sa’di, 1486 CE The courtroom of the Elephants, Alhambra, fourteenth c. VOTRE, Granada, The country Dome, Lounge of the Abencerrajes, Alhambra, 14th c. CE, Granada, Spain Cloak of Roger 2 of Sicily, 12th c. CE The Temptation and Fall, Doorways of Bishop Bernward, Hildesheim Cathedral, california. 1015 CE Detail of qibla wall, Great Mosque, Cordoba, 10th c. CE Interior of Prayer Lounge, Great Mosque, Cordoba, 8th-10th c.

VOTRE St . Matt, from the Gospel Book of Archbishop Ebbo of Reims, 816-835 VOTRE St . Matt, from the Gospel Book of Charlemagne, florida. 800-810 CE Equestrian Sculpture of a Carolingian Ruler, ninth C Kufic script coming from a Qu’ran, 9th c. Chi Rho Iota Site, Book of Kells, florida. 800 VOTRE St . Matt, Lindisfarne Gospels, tempera on vellum, los angeles. 700 CE Cross Page, Lindisfarne Gospels, tempera upon vellum, los angeles. 700 VOTRE Dome with the Rock, Jerusalem, ca. 690 and later Room, Dome from the Rock, Jerusalem, ca. 690 CE and later Belt strip, Sutton Hoo Ship Burial, ca. 600-650 CE Handbag cover, Sutton Hoo Dispatch Burial, florida. 600-650 CE Clasp, Sutton Hoo Deliver Burial, florida. 600-650 CE

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