string(109) ‘ level The SEN Code of Practice 2001 remains the statutory laws governing SEN practice and provision\. ‘
A vital review on the role of the SENCO and dyslexia: just how this role has been damaged and impacted upon simply by recent legislation Introduction The BDA Dyslexia Friendly Universities Pack pertaining to Teachers (2009) provides an general guide of what dyslexia is and just how a dyslexia friendly university should be providing education for the dyslexic spanish student. The freelance writers begin with a definition of dyslexia stating that “dyslexia is actually a learning difference, a combination of strong points and weaknesses.
This is a beneficial definition rather than the recommendation of Norwich ainsi que al (2005) that exemplary schools should promote a comprehensive school system whereby dyslexia is considered but is not in isolation.
The BDA (2009) state that importance needs to be placed on acknowledging dyslexia while ” a particular learning difficulty as a certain learning difference so that teaching is inclusive and focuses on all scholars rather than only the dyslexic spanish student who may well already think something is wrong with these people.
However , We stress that the general definition is simplified and I agree with Reid that there should be a working/operational definition. Reid’s meaning of dyslexia much more informative: There can be visual and phonological issues and there is usually some discrepancy in shows in different regions of learning. It is vital that the individual dissimilarities and learning styles will be acknowledged since these will affect outcomes of analysis and learning. (p. 4-5, Reid, 2003).
The BDA (2009) deduce to achieve BDA Quality Draw status, LEAs and their linked schools need to encourage and identify excellent practice in following and improving access to education for all learners. I feel that planning a dyslexia friendly university has the effect of improving the learning of not simply the dyslexic learner nevertheless other students as well. Relating to Snowling et al (2011), dyslexia is seen to become “deficit in phonological skills which, in return, compromises the ability to learn the grapheme”phoneme mappings that underpin skills in an transliterated system.
Snowling et al’s (2011) exploration underpins vintage definition of dyslexia that it is a specific reading difficulty whereby literacy under success is apparent and comes below the approved level offered the cleverness of the novice. This study is important: it goes beyond recounting dyslexia on the behavioural level (i. at the. incorrect transliteration and reading) to taking into account weaknesses in the cognitive level that explicate the practical problems (Morton , Frith, 1995).
Dyslexic learners possess deficits in three connected but dissimilar areas of phonological processing: “phonological awareness (the ability to deal with and change sounds in words), phonological memory (memory for speech-based information ” also referred to as mental memory), and naming (providing the voiced label for the visual referent). (Vellutino ainsi que al., 2004). Consequently, latest definitions of dyslexia have got discarded the need for literacy to get appreciably beneath general skills, and have taken a widely accepted perspective of dyslexia with “phonological processing as a core deficit (Lyon, Shaywitz , Shaywitz, 2003). Circumstance
The circumstance in which I am applied is a small mainstream one-form entry Chapel of Great britain voluntary assisted primary college. The school can be found in a miserable inner city location in the London, uk borough of Lewisham exactly where 25% of the 225 kids on move from Baby room through to 12 months 6 are eligible for Free Institution Meals. This can be significantly more than 2006 nationwide figures of 16% of most primary young children receiving Free of charge School Foods (FSM). The quantity of children at present identified as having a unique Educational Need is 47, or 20. 8% of the total school human population which is slightly higher than june 2006 national numbers of 18%.
The figure of 1. seven percent is the range of SEND (Special Educational Requires and Disabilities) children who have a Statement of Special Educational Need ” lower than national figures of 3% , and the rest of the GIVE population consists overwhelmingly of kids on School Action In addition (78% , 67. five per cent represented by simply boys and 32. 5% represented by simply girls) and approximately 8% of SEND OUT children on School Action. The largest recognized area of special need inside the school declines under SLCN ( Presentation, Language and Communication Want ) as set out inside the SEN Code of Practice 2001 exactly where 61% of SEND children have a medical diagnosis of receptive and xpressive vocabulary difficulty, then 21% of SEND children with a medical diagnosis of and Autism Variety Disorder (ASD). Other types of want are Down’s Syndrome ( 2%), Apert’s Syndrome (2%), Social, Mental and Behavioural Difficulties SEBD (6%), Dyslexia (2%) and even more generally literacy difficulties which can be under exploration for potential specific causes (6%). These types of needs are justifiable because they have been recognised and recognized as such by simply relevantly competent and exterior agencies or are in the process penalized more specifically discovered.
A critical report on the position of the SENCO The function of the SENCo has developed through government coverage and gone through significant modifications in our past 10 years with the introduction of the lawful SEN Code of Practice 2001 which will states the fact that role with the SENCo contains identifying and placing students in need of particular educational supply on a managed to graduate system, liaising with parents and other specialists in regards to kids with SEND OUT and guidance and assisting other practitioners in the field among other obligations.
This was typically interpreted being a co-ordinating function whereby Teaching Assistants ( in for least 36% of colleges ) had been employed in this kind of capacity and contributed to disparities in supply nationally as well as a divergence of roles. Last year new authorities regulations and amendments to the SEN Code of Practice 2001 needed SENCos to become qualified educators and for those teachers a new comer to the part to undergo compulsory training in the shape of the National Award of SEN Coordination.
The 06\ House of Commons Education and Abilities Select Panel Report about SEN obviously defines the role from the SENCo like a strategic innovator, and suggested that SENCos “should in all cases become qualified professors and in a senior management position inside the school since recommended inside the SEN Code of Practice. (Recommendation 84) Statutory and regulatory frameworks and relevant developments for national and local level The SEN Code of Practice 2001 remains to be the lawful legislation governing SEN practice and dotacion.
You examine ‘A Critical Review of a Senco’ in category ‘Essay examples’
The 2001 Code of Practice replaces the 1994 Code of Practice, although it retains much of the first guidance, although takes into account improvements in education since 1994 and involves new obligations introduced by SEN and Disability Action 2001. The 2001 Code of Practice promotes a more consistent way of meeting the needs of youngsters with SEN and focuses on preventative job and early identification as well as developing good partnerships between parents, educational institutions, local authorities, health and social companies and non-reflex organisations.
The college Special Educational Needs and Disability insurance plan is largely based upon the SEN Code of Practice 2001 and contains elements of the statutory Impairment Discrimination Act 2005, as well as local authority guidance of national insurance plan, such as the Lewisham school action , university action in addition guidance 2010. The school coverage clearly declares: “A kid is considered to have exceptional educational needs when they are found to have significantly nicer difficulty in learning than the majority of their age group, or have a disability which will significantly hinders their make use of educational facilities.
When such problems or problems persistently require the planning of educational dotacion different from those of the rest of the school, the child is put on the Unique Needs and Disabilities Profile. This is a confidential list of children for whom extra support can be necessary and whose progress will be supervised by the school teacher and Inclusion Supervisor. ( Rose , Lyle, 2011, p1) Some elements of the SEN Code of Practice 2001 platform are assistance, whilst other folks must be observed.
This includes ensuring liaison with parents and also other professional according to children with SEN, ensuring that Person Education Programs (IEPs) are in place which relevant details about individual kids with SEN is collated, recorded and updated. The Code makes sure that schools and local authorities must examine their particular practice and provision for the children with SEN and that they happen to be accountable legally ” electronic. g. offering full use of a broad, well-balanced and relevant education.
The Code of Practice emphasises the right of the child with SEN to reach mainstream education through the development of provision in such settings to meet “a wide range of SEN (COP 2001, 7: 52-7: 63) that may overlap inside the categories of connection and connection, cognition and learning, behavior, emotional and social creation and sensory and/or physical needs. The provision offered may require well-differentiated Top quality First teaching (Edwards 2010), intervention programs including disengagement from ategori, specialist teaching or remedy or presence ( full or part-time ) at a specialist setting. Children are to get identified as early as possible and the needs fulfilled through a graduated approach in the school’s personal resources ( School Action), additional support from exterior agencies ( School Actions Plus ), or if progress is inadequate and further support from the Local power is required, a Statement of Special Educational Requirements may be issued.
As I ready this dissertation, I have recognized a number of key tensions during my particular university: Whilst school teachers within my school accept, in accordance with the National Curriculum Inclusion Affirmation 1999, that they must interact to children’s diverse learning needs and conquer potential limitations to learning and analysis for individuals and groups of students, including individuals with SEND, there have been a lack of quality over the which means of the term “inclusion and with whom the overall responsibility of children on the SEND signup lies.
This really is hardly amazing as there may be little opinion on the precise meaning of ‘inclusion’ by national amounts ” OFSTED tend to watch inclusion because minimising inequalities for categories of children ” eg. including those with SEND, on FSM, gender, race or attainment ” while teachers mainly regard introduction chiefly regarding individuals with SEND ( NASUWT Report 2008, p. 18 ) and the “right being included in a mainstream class and how to finest achieve this.
Progressively, I prefer a model that enables individual kids ” whether SEND, British as one more Language (EAL) or non-SEND ” to reach an education which usually best complies with their needs primarily based as much as possible inside the mainstream class room but through withdrawing children for expert 1: one particular or small group teaching depending on their needs plus the gaps inside their knowledge in accordance with their colleagues and age-related expectations.
The non-statutory Eliminating Barriers intended for Achievement (2004) highlights that most teachers ” not just the SENCO or Inclusion Administrator ” are in charge of for educating children with SEND. This also includes communicating the meaning to category teachers that they will be often finest placed to initially detect difficulties children may be having and by making certain referral forms available to them, thus actively engaging them in jointly acquiring responsibility for SEND or potential GIVE children in their classes.
The Every Kid Matters (2004) agenda is currently not statutory and is right now being re-drafted as Every single Child Accomplishes in a fresh White Daily news, although the five original effects remain. The 5 effects are: to be safe, being healthy, to savor and achieve, to make a great contribution and achieve economic well-being. The focus for universities not only must be upon making sure all staff are aware of the 5 final results, but as well on the effects and improvement made for the 5 outcomes by most pupils and individuals within vulnerable groupings, such as children with Unique Educational Requirements.
Such agendas which stay alongside additional requirements upon class teachers to also focus on group outcomes just like groups of kids attaining age “related anticipations hence creates pulls in opposing directions as to the amounts of attainment a kid is reaching and the best outcome for this child ” or “competing rather than supporting agendas. There exists a lack of clarity as to whether educational policy is involved with ‘normalisation’ and conformity, or truly values selection and difference (NASUWT Record 2008, l. 18 ). This stress is a idea which goes on in the form of ‘narrowing the gaps’ between groupings and ‘accelerated progress’.
In the case of children with Speech and Language problems or dyslexic tendencies, these types of terms look contradictory and oxymoronic ” as commonly such kids need reinforcement and over learning compared to their very own peers functioning at age-related expectations. It is hard to see just how such kids can make the requisite volume of progress as assessed by countrywide age-related attainment standards ( and producing a minimum of 2 sub levels progress 12 months ) instead of progress as measured against their person areas of weak spot and specific difficulties.
Assessed this last mentioned way, all their progress may be excellent even though a system of levels and sub-levels may well fail to be sensitive enough to data this improvement. I are therefore reviewing ways such as building in pre- and post input screening pertaining to relevant children and looking at using Determining Pupils’ Improvement (APP) Speaking and Tuning in levels furthermore to Countrywide Curriculum levels in Examining, Writing and Maths to more sensitively measure improvement.
The contribution of extended services, such as Child and Adolescent Mental Health Companies (CAMHS), Educational Psychology, Relatives Services, and Early Intervention Services to improve outcomes for youngsters as define in ECM(2004) is welcome, although it is not easy to measure the impact and the progress this may have got for a number of factors: in changing times, it truly is at times hard to keep up to date with developments and changes to companies offered and the accessibility, different services may have a varying level of impact on different children and the families, only some parents are open ” plus some positively immune ” to accepting recommendations to certain companies, there can be a diffusion of responsibility once various firms are involved. Being a SENCo, one would encounter many of these barriers in order to find that expanding good working, collaborative and supportive human relationships with all staff of extended services that a SENCo performs closely with as well as parents is the best way forward and ensuring that conversation channels are maintained.
It has to be cautiously weighed against issues of information protection and confidentiality making sure the project for example that Common Evaluation Frameworks (CAFs) are raised before data is distributed between firms and that every sensitive info is kept in a safe site to which just a SENCo and the Headteacher have access. Nevertheless , to enable course teachers to higher understand the requires of children that the SENCo instructs on a daily basis, the SENCo will ensure that all class educators are provided with relevant reviews from external agencies which these are employed appropriately to see planning and provision to get a child inside both a classroom and wider school setting.
Excessive incidence of SEN and dyslexia ” how they can affect pupils’ participation and learning and ways to remove limitations to learning Baroness Warnock is quoted: “SEN has come to be the name of your single category, and the government uses that as if it is the same issue to include a kid in a wheelchair and children with Asperger’s, and that is conspicuously untrue (The Guardian, Thursday January thirty-one, 2006). Certainly, the 2006 House of Commons Choose Committee Survey on Special Educational Requires acknowledges that “children exist on a extensive continuum of needs and learning variations but usually do not fit into nice categories of different types of children ” those with and without SEN.
The category of “SEN is a great arbitrary distinction that leads to false categories and, it could be argued that, this is what is usually causing the high numbers of conflict and frustration with all those included. (p. 36) It has often been my encounter when discussing the progress of various pupils on the GIVE register with senior leadership who regularly use the terminology “SEND and “non-SEND. We am of the opinion this is a blanket term which in turn does little to understand the actual nature of individual little one’s difficulties and just how best to talk about these. OFSTED comparison of groupings engenders this approach which is not hypersensitive enough towards the variation among individuals.
When it comes to my school, it appears that the group many at risk of underachieving is larger ability ladies ” without SEN! With an emphasis on the social context of special educational needs, Removing Barriers to Achievement (2004, p. almost 8, ) says: “Difficulties in learning often arise from an unsuitable environment ” inappropriate grouping of pupils, adamant teaching variations, or inaccessible curriculum ” as much via individual kid’s physical, sensory or intellectual impairments. Children’ emotional and mental health needs could also have a tremendous impact on their particular ability to get the most from the possibilities in school, since may friends and family circumstances.
These things to consider, combined with proof that there is a hyperlink between sociable deprivation and SEN country wide ” as well as underachievement nationally and interpersonal deprivation, will make identification of SEN challenging in my college, especially in School Actions Level ” for example , is a child producing poor progress in reading and writing because of difficulties such as potential dyslexia, or through poor parenting and a lack of contact with books in the home? Or equally? Should the kid be on the SEND enroll and is he underachieving? In such cases, assessment and targeted involvement at the certain area of weakness can help identify between a number of possible factors, but it really may not regularly be so obvious cut. What is clear is that these issues need to be resolved to lower the longer term effects on such a child’s creation and to help them succeed in the future.
This can entail working extremely closely, and in partnership with parents in order to build a sustainable and longer term answer. The OFSTED Special Educational Needs and Disability Assessment 2010 discovered that the term ‘Special Educational Needs’ was too trusted with up 50% of schools stopped at using low attainment and slow improvement as the main element indicators of a special educational need, with in some cases, hardly any further evaluation. According to the survey, 50% coming from all pupils determined for Institution Action may not be identified as such in the event that, “schools concentrated on increasing teaching and learning for all those, with specific goals to get improvement (p. 3). This kind of suggested a culture of underachievement as a result of low pupil expectations and poor popular teaching provision.
It also identified that learners identified as having special educational requirements were disproportionately from disadvantaged backgrounds and achieved significantly less well than their peers in terms of attainment and improvement over time. Father and mother were eager to have youngsters formally recognized as having special educational needs in order to ensure extra support for his or her child. The caliber of the additional support from within or perhaps outside the college was not identified to be very good by inspectors. Provision was often not really appropriate or of good enough quality and did not result in better outcomes for the child. The assessment found that no one style or environment of particular needs supply worked much better than another.
The important thing findings included improving the caliber of assessment, improving teaching at an early stage to avoid extra provision by a after stage, making certain schools usually do not over-identify children as having special educational needs the moment better Quality First Teaching was required, making sure additional support was successful and developing specialist supply and providers. A result of this kind of findings as well as the implications intended for my college have been: 1 ) A reduction in the number of children added to School Actions ” either by not being placed on the SEND signup, or by being removed from this. In many cases, determined labels were “behavioural.
There is evidence great class teacher behaviour administration, combined with weekly visits from a student referral unit outreach member of staff, as well as a Learning Mentor, has helped to eliminate some emotional barriers for some children’s learning. However , meanings of ‘behavioural difficulty’ can still remain unclear as this can be a fluid and relative term dependent on the setting of the class and the nature and frequency of behavioural challenge ” thus vary nationally as well as in a school. Children remaining in school action are typically children with ongoing literacy difficulties, in whose difficulties will be being analyzed more specifically because suspected dyslexia. 2 .
Improved training for Educating Assistants who also are often employees working closely with children identified with SEND. This has included in one facility training and attendance in specific programs as well as reaching a minimum regular in Maths and English language. Time factors and competitive demands about Teaching Assistants’ time even so are significant constraints and hinder the impact that this schooling may have got. The school right now employs a NumbersCounts maths specialist. The effect of this professional teaching requirements greater time to develop to measure its effectiveness ” although I do not feel that curriculum sub-levels may actually be the best way to measure this impact for several children. three or more.
A focus upon Quality Initially teaching to ensure that all personnel educate, share and encourage practical and achievable methods for every category teacher to look at strategies being a matter of day to day routine that are specially to children with Speech and Vocabulary difficulties and dyslexic habits ” to embed this kind of in a tradition of good general practice and reduce the potential for kids to be categorized as ‘SEN’ when underachievement is the concern and provide a good learning environment for all children ” which includes those with SEN. The Code of Practice (2001) outlines four primary areas of require ” cognition and learning, behaviour, mental and sociable development requires, communication and interaction and sensory and physical requires. Compared to national 2006 numbers ( DfES Special Educational Needs in britain, January 06\. SFR23/2006), our school has a far larger incidence of Speech and Language difficulties including dyslexia ( 61% of the SEND OUT egister ) ASD ( 21%) compared to the national characters ( 16. 3% and 2 . 4% respectively ) but a far lower occurrence of BESD ( 6% to twenty six. 5% nationally ). Section of the reason might be recent institution investment in enhanced Presentation and Language Service in the NHS, where the school as well as 4 other local schools, funds each week Speech and Language specialist time. This has lead to a high rate of testimonials, which has resulted in a higher rate of detection. This picture is not evenly spread on the other hand ” the investment in Speech and Language, even though justifiable consequently difficulties impede access to various parts of the curriculum, comes at a cost to other kinds of SEND because identified by the Code of Practice.
Other children’s need are not constantly met quickly ( occasionally more than 2 terms ) despite early on identification because of lengthy holding out times to get assessments with ‘low level, high incidence’ learning problems such as dyslexia having low priority inside the hierarchy of urgency. You will find only a couple of Specialist Professors qualified to formally analyze dyslexia furnished by the Lewisham Inclusion Service to support the needs of kids in mainstream settings in whose time is usually shared among 92 colleges in the area. This means that expert provision increasingly needs to be presented within the college setting which is dependent of current staff levels of knowledge.
This can generate variability inside the quality of provision for the children with SEN across educational institutions in the same locality. Relative to the Equalities Act 2010 and Special Educational Needs and Handicap Act (2001), schools need to make reasonable modifications for children with SEN and disabilities to get into testing that will not discriminate against them on such basis as their impairment or special need. A learner with a Statement of Special Educational Needs immediately qualifies for about 25% more hours in order to complete testing in Reading, Composing and Mathematics at the conclusion of KS2 ” even so changes in the standards for awarding Statements of SEN in Lewisham possess amounted to fewer assertions being granted and cost savings for the authority.
A diagnosis of dyslexia would not on the other hand result in added time if the spanish student does not have a Declaration unless considerable additional documentation is supplied. The use of a scribe, transcript, technology such as a notebook computer or audience however for a dyslexic learner is discretionary upon a school’s evaluation of the learner’s need to be able to access the tests and can be easily arranged. It is by least reasonable for Requirements and Programs Development Organization (QCDA) guidelines to permit this sort of measures as scribes or laptops to remove potential barriers to overall performance for children with certain types of need under formal examination conditions to access the information held by children who have may not ideal be able to illustrate in created form.
To summarize, whilst numerous governmental plans have was executed to improve the results for children with SEND, there are difficulties ” some unanticipated ” between the principles set out and the translation of these in practice, with gaps and variations in local and national levels. We watch for the impending new guidelines around SEND OUT and the effects that this may have on the ever-developing role of the SENCo forging a strategic path to best meet the needs ” Special Educational and otherwise , of families and children within a tighter reference framework. References Special Educational Needs Code of Practice. DfEE 581/2001 November 2001 QCA Programs guidelines to get learners with learning problems and exceptional arrangements during Key Stage 2 testing ” 2012
Special Educational Needs and Disabilty Take action 2001 What Equality law means for you as an education provider: schools. Equality and Human Privileges Commission, 2010 Removing Boundaries to Success: The Government’s Strategy for SEN. DfES/0118/2004. 2004 National Add-on Statement, 99 Every Kid Matters: Change for children (2004) Special Educational Needs and Inclusion: Expression and Restoration, NASUWT Record, 2008 Property of Commons Select Committee Report upon Special Educational Needs, HMSO, 2006 Addition Development Programme: Teaching and supporting learners with dyslexia. www. nasentraining. org. uk/resources/dyslexia-idp-materials/ The Special Educational Demands and Incapacity Review.
Ofsted, 2010 The SENCO endurance guide: the nuts and bolts of everything you need to know Edwards, Sylvia, Nationwide Association pertaining to Special Educational Needs (Great Britain) E-boo, Routledge, 2010, 1st model Inclusion: Does it matter wherever pupils happen to be taught? Ofsted, 2006 Lewisham Local Education Authority guides: School Action/School Action In addition guidance conditions (2010) Add-on debate treads new floor, The Guardian, Tuesday 23, 2006 Hallett, F , Hallett, G (2010). Changing the Part of the SENCO: Achieving the Countrywide Award to get SEN Skill, Open School Press Particular Educational Needs and Handicap Policy, Flower and Lyle, 2011
The essential matter of black people history is the constant fight to defeat the barrier of race, and the actuality of unequal ethnical identity among black and white people. “This racial bifurcation has created seite an seite realities or perhaps racial globe, in which blacks and whites may have interaction closely with each other, but […] ...
Preparing to Carry out Business Research: Part three or more RES/351 Feb . 20, 2012 Age discrimination is sont sur internet. Older personnel are understood to be members with the “mature era (58 or even more years old), younger staff are associates of three generations”the Baby Boom (post World War II or perhaps 38 ” […] ...
Law Moreen Prasad Sept 20, 2012 ENG tips Rhetorical Analysis Papers Please! The Support Our Police and Safe Communities Act, also known as the Paperwork Please Law, has stirred up a comprehensive amount of controversy attaining national and international attention. The Take action basically declares that people whom: are not residents of the United States, […] ...
Cell Phones In several ways, cell phones happen to be addictive. The gadgets could be an integral part of many people’s days. Smartphones are often glued to someones hands or perhaps accessible via blue teeth technology. Unwanted side effects of mobile phone addiction consist of isolation and unbalanced goals. There are effective solutions pertaining to […] ...
Literature Lunacy 5. 14 At common law, oie are susceptible to a permanent legal incapacity to vote, yet persons of unsound head may have your vote during articulate intervals. Charles Arnold-Baker Local authorities Administration Seventh Edition I Samantha Mollison had at this point bought herself all three of the DVDs produced by Libby’s favourite youngster […] ...
Food Marketplace Failure 2. Adulteration in Food Market Submitted to: Mr. Sheikh Morshed Jahan Associate Mentor Course Instructor , Bangladesh Studies Published by: Samia Khan (RQ 16) Ridderskab Mostaque Ahmed (ZR 22) Ahnaf Zabee (ZR 35) Rituraj Baidya (ZR 56) Institute of Business Administration University of Dhaka April 9, 2012 Table of Contents Industry failure3 […] ...
The Shadow of Hate The documentary remarks for the origins of race and how it has affected history and the people. There has been a history of intolerance in America against the “them”, the others. “Them”, being the several, the unfamiliar. It is obvious that people fear so much the unfamiliar because of the uncertainness […] ...
string(148) ‘ the capacitor is usually regenerated using a drying agent dehumidifier \( see figure 11 \), dividing the regenerative airstream from the source airstream\. ‘ Mechanical shoqing is the using distributed and ducted air to and from proudly located fans in conjunction with heat recovery or humidification, chilling, heating system or purification. These types […] ...
Charlie CHARLIE CHAPLIN DISSERTATION INTRODUCTION Once i decided to perform my research on Steve Chaplin, I think that it could have been quite straightforward, my own plan was going to introduce his life and his career, concluding off with his accomplishments. However , as my personal research progressed, I arrived at realise that Charlie Chaplin […] ...
Ocean State College Division of Biochemistry and biology Identification of Metallic Ions Purpose: The goal of this research laboratory exercise was going to perform and observe the flame tests of some alkali and alkaline earth steel ions. Once electrons in metallic ions are grounded, their configuration is secure. In other words, the loosely certain electrons […] ...