Of all gynecologic malignancies, ovarian malignancy continues to have
highest fatality and is the most difficult to detect. In the United States
woman population, ovarian cancer rates high fifth in absolute mortality among
cancer related deaths (13, 000/yr). In most reported circumstances, ovarian malignancy
once first diagnosed is in periods III or perhaps IV in about 70 to 70% of patients
which usually further complicates treatment of the disease (Barber, 3).
Early detection in ovarian cancer can be hampered by the lack of suitable
growth markers and clinically, most patients fail to develop significant
symptoms right up until they reach advanced level disease. The functions
of ovarian malignancy have been researched in principal tumors in addition to established
ovarian tumor cell lines which provide a reproducible source of tumor materials.
Among the major clinical problems of ovarian cancers, malignant development
rapid introduction of medicine resistance, and associated cross-resistance remain
unresolved. Ovarian cancer contains a high frequency of metastasis but generally
remains local within the peritoneal cavity. Tumor development has been
associated with saugrenu, dysfunctional expression and/or changement of
numerous genes. This could include oncogene overexpression, extreme or
mutation, aberrant tumor suppressor expression or perhaps mutation. As well, subversion
of web host antitumor defense responses may possibly play a role in the pathogenesis of
malignancy (Sharp, 77).
Ovarian clear cellular adenocarcinoma was first described simply by Peham in 1899 while
hypernephroma of the ovary due to the resemblance to renal cellular carcinoma.
By 1939, Schiller known a histologic similarity to mesonephric tubules and
grouped these tumors as mesonephromas. In 1944, Saphir and Lackner explained
two cases of hypernephroid carcinoma of the ovary and proposed clear cell
adenocarcinoma as an alternative term. Crystal clear cell tumors of the ovary are now
generally regarded as being of mullerian and in the genital tract of mullerian origin.
A number of types of clear cell adenocarcinoma have already been reported to arise
from the epithelium of an endometriotic cyst (Yoonessi, 289). At times, a reniforme
cell carcinoma metastasizes to the ovary and may end up being confused with , the burkha clear
Ovarian obvious cell adenocarcinoma (OCCA) have been recognized as a distinct
histologic business in the World Overall health Organization (WHO) classification of ovarian
tumors since 1973 and is the most lethal ovarian neoplasm with an overall five year
survival of just 34% (Kennedy, 342). Crystal clear cell adenocarcinoma, like most ovarian
cancers, originates from the ovarian epithelium which is a single level of cellular material found on
the top of ovary. Individuals with ovarian clear cellular adenocarcinoma are normally
above the regarding 30 using a median of 54 which can be similar to those of ovarian epithelial
cancer in general. OCCA symbolizes approximately 6% of ovarian cancers and bilateral
ovarian involvement happens in fewer that 50 percent of sufferers even in advanced cases.
The connection of OCCA and endometriosis is very well documented (De La Rampa
243). It was confirmed by simply Kennedy ou al whom encountered histologic or intraoperative
proof of endometriosis in 45% with their study individuals. Transformation
coming from endometriosis to clear cell adenocarcinoma has been previously demonstrated in
sporadic circumstances but was not really observed by simply Kennedy et al. Hypercalcemia occurs in a
significant percentage of people with OCCA. Patients with advanced disease are more
typically affected than patients with nonmetastatic disease. Patients with OCCA are usually
more likely to include Stage My spouse and i disease than are people with ovarian epithelial cancer in
general (Kennedy, 348).
Histologic grade has been beneficial as a primary prognostic determinant in some studies
of epithelial cancers with the ovary. The grading of ovarian obvious cell adenocarcinoma has
been problematic and is also complicated by multiplicity of histologic patterns found in
precisely the same tumor. Similar problems have been found in attempted grading of crystal clear cell
adenocarcinoma of the endometrium (Disaia, 176). Despite these types of problems, tumour
grading continues to be attempted although has failed to demonstrate prognostic value.
However , collected data suggest that low mitotic activity and a predominance of clear
cells may be good histologic features (Piver, 136).
Risk factors for OCCA and ovarian cancer generally speaking are much much less clear than for
additional genital tumors with standard agreement about two risk factors: nulliparity and friends and family
history. There is a higher frequency of carcinoma in unmarried ladies and in hitched
women with low parity. Gonadal dysgenesis in kids is linked to a higher risk
of developing ovarian cancer when oral contraceptives are associated with a decreased
risk. Hereditary and applicant host family genes may be altered in susceptible families. Amongst
those presently under research is BRCA1 which has been connected with an
elevated susceptibility to breast cancer. About 30% of ovarian adenocarcinomas
communicate high degrees of HER-2/neu oncogene which correlates with a poor prognosis
(Altcheck, 375-376). Mutations in host growth suppresser gene p53 are normally found in fifty percent of
ovarian carcinomas. There as well appears to be a racial predilection, as the greater part
of cases are noticed in Caucasians (Yoonessi, 295).
Significant variation is available in the gross appearance of ovarian crystal clear cell
adenocarcinomas and they are generally indistinguishable from other epithelial ovarian
carcinomas. They could be cystic, solid, very soft, or rubbery, and may also contain
hemorrhagic and mucinous areas (ODonnell, 250). Microscopically, clear cell
carcinomas will be characterized by the existence of variable ratios of obvious and hobnail
cells. The former contain considerable clear cytoplasm with typically centrally located nuclei
while the second option show clear or pink cytoplasm and bizarre principal nuclei with atypical
cytoplasmic intraluminal predictions. The cell phone arrangement can be tubulo acinar
papillary, or solid, with the great majority displaying a mixture of these habits. The
hobnail and clear cells main with tube and stable forms, correspondingly (Barber
Obvious cell adenocarcinoma tissue set with liquor shows an increased cytoplasmic
glycogen content which is often shown by means of special staining techniques.
Abundant extracellular and uncommon intracellular natural mucin combined with sulfate and
carboxyl group is usually present. The crystal clear cells are recognized histochemically and
ultrastructurally (short and blunt microvilli, intercellular limited junctions and desmosomes
cost-free ribosomes, and lamellar endoplasmic reticulum). The ultrastructure of hobnail and
clear cellular material resemble the ones from the comparable cells noticed in clear cell carcinomas of the
remainder with the female penile tract (OBrien, 254). A variation in patterns of histology
is observed among these kinds of tumors and frequently within the same one.
Whether both tube components with hobnail skin cells and the stable part with obvious cells
are required to establish a medical diagnosis or the occurrence of just one of the patterns is definitely
sufficient is actually not clearly established. Fortunately, many tumors demonstrate a mixture of
these kinds of components. Not cancerous and borderline counterparts of clear cellular ovarian
adenocarcinomas are assumptive possibilities. Yoonessi et approach reported that nodal
metastases could be discovered even when the disease appears to be largely limited to the
pelvis (Yoonessi, 296). Study of retroperitoneal nodes is essential to allow for
more factual staging and carefully organized adjuvant therapy.
Surgery remains the spine of treatment and generally contains removal of the
uterus, pontoons and ovaries, possible incomplete omentectomy, and nodal biopsies. The
success and value of curative radiotherapy and chemotherapy is not clearly
demonstrated. Therefore , in patients with unilateral exemplified lesions and
histologically confirmed uninvolvement in the contralateral ovary, omentum, and biopsied
nodes, a case could be made for (a)no adjuvant remedy after total surgical removal
and (b) removal of only the infected ovary within an occasional affected person who may be young
and desirous of preserving her reproductive ability (Altchek, 97). In the even more adv-
anced stages, associated with the womb, ovaries, omentum, and as much tumor as possible
followed by pelvic radiotherapy (if residual disease is limited to the pelvis) or perhaps
chemotherapy must be considered. The chemotherapeutic routines generally entail
adriamycin, alkylating agents, and cisPlatinum that contains combinations (Barber, 442).
OCCA is of epithelial origin and quite often contains blends of different epithelial tumors
such as serous, mucinous, and endometrioid. Obvious cell adenocarcinoma is characterized
by large epithelial cellular material with abounding cytoplasm. Since these tumors sometimes
result from association with endometriosis or endometrioid carcinoma of the ovary and
appear like clear cellular carcinoma in the endometrium, vehicle thought to be of
mullerian duct origin and variants of endometrioid adenocarcinoma. Clear cellular tumors of
the ovary can be mostly solid or perhaps cystic. In the solid neoplasm, the very clear cells happen to be
arranged in sheets or perhaps tubules. Inside the cystic kind, the neoplastic cells series the spots.
Five-year survival is approximately 50% when these tumors are confined to the ovaries
but these tumors tend to end up being aggressive and spread over and above the ovary which helps make
5-year survival highly unlikely (Altchek, 416).
A few debate goes on as to whether clear cell or perhaps mesonephroid carcinoma is a
independent clinicopathological entity with its personal distinctive biologic behavior and natural
background or a histologic variant of endometrioid carcinoma. In an effort to characterize
clear cellular adenocarcinoma, Jenison et approach compared these tumors towards the most common of
the epithelial malignancies, the serous adenocarcinoma (SA). Histologically determined
endometriosis was strikingly more common between patients with OCCA than with SA.
Other findings by Jenison et approach suggest that the biologic patterns of obvious cell
adenocarcinoma differs as a result of SA. They identified Stage I tumors in 50% of the
observed individual population and a lower incidence of bilaterality in OCCA
(Jenison, 67-69). Additionally , it seems that OCCA is definitely characteristically larger than
SA, probably explaining the more frequency of symptoms and signs by presentation.
There is controversy regarding talcum powder use leading to ovarian cancers. Until recently, most
talc powders had been contaminated with asbestos. Conceptually, talcum natural powder on the
perineum could reach the ovaries by consumption through the cervix or vagina. Since
talcum powders are no longer contaminated with asbestos, raise the risk is probably will no longer
important (Barber, 200). The high excess fat content of whole milk, rechausser, and meats products
has been implicated with an increased risk for ovarian tumor in general.
The Centers for Disease Control as opposed 546 women with ovarian cancer to 4, 228
controls and reported that for women 20 to fifty four years of age, the use of oral
preventive medicines reduced the chance of ovarian cancer by forty percent and the likelihood of ovarian cancer
decreased because the life long oral birth control method use increased. Even the utilization of oral
contraceptives for three weeks decreased the risk. The safety effect of oral
contraceptives is to reduce the family member risk to 0. 6th or to cure the incidence of disease
by simply 40%. We have a decreased risk as high as 40% for women that have had 4 or
even more children as compared with nulliparous girls. There is a rise in the chance
of ovarian cancer amongst nulliparous ladies and a reduce with elevating parity. The
incessant after ovulating theory proposes that continuous ovulation triggers repeated shock
to the ovary leading to the introduction of ovarian tumor. Incidentally, having two or
more abortions compared to by no means having had a great abortion lessens ones likelihood of
developing ovarian cancer by 30% (Coppleson, 25-28).
It is frequently accepted that cancer results from a series of innate alterations that
disrupt typical cellular progress and differentiation. It has been recommended that hereditary
changes creating cancer take place in two kinds of normal cell phone genes, proto-
oncogenes and tumor suppressor genes. Genetic changes in proto-oncogenes facilitate
the transformation of your normal cellular to a cancerous cell simply by production of the altered or perhaps
overexpressed gene product. This kind of genetic adjustments include changement, translocation, or perhaps
amplification of proto-oncogenes Tumour suppressor family genes are recommended to prevent
tumor. Inactivation or loss of these types of genes leads to development of cancer by the
not enough a functional gene product. This could require mutations in both equally alleles of the tumor
suppressor gene. These genes work as regulatory inhibitors of cellular proliferation, these kinds of
as a DNA transcription aspect, or a cellular adhesion molecule. Loss of these kinds of functions
could cause abnormal cell division or perhaps gene appearance, or elevated ability of cells in
tissues to detach. Tumor such as OCCA most likely comes from the dynamic interaction
of several genetically altered proto-oncogenes and tumour suppressor family genes (Piver, 64-
Until recently, there was clearly little data that the origins of ovarian was genetic. Before
1970, familial ovarian cancer had been reported in just five people. A familial cancer
registry was established by Roswell Recreation area Cancer Start in 1981 to record the
number of cases occurring in the usa and to study the setting of inheritance. If
a genetic autosomal dominant transmission of the disease can be founded, counseling
for prophylactic oophorectomy at an ideal age may lead to a reduction in the death
rate from ovarian cancer in this sort of families.
The registry at Roswell Park reported 201 situations of ovarian cancer in 94 people in
1984. From 1981 through 1991, 820 households and 2946 cases have been observed.
Familial ovarian cancer is not a uncommon occurrence and might account for 2 to 5% of all situations
of ovarian cancer. 3 conditions which might be associated with family ovarian malignancy are
(1) site certain, the most common contact form, which is restricted to ovarian malignancy, and (2)
breast/ovarian cancers with clustering of ovarian and breasts cases in extended pedigrees
(Altchek, 229-230). One characteristic of inherited ovarian cancers is that that occurs for a
substantially younger era than the non-inherited form.
Cytogenetic investigations of intermittent (non-inherited) ovarian tumors include revealed
recurrent alterations of chromosomes 1, 3, 6, and 10. Many proto-oncogenes have been
planned to these chromosomes, and deletions of sectors of chromosomes (particularly
3p and 6q) in some tumors is according to a role for loss of tumour suppressor family genes.
Just lately, a hereditary linkage research of familial breast/ovary malignancy suggested linkage of
disease susceptibility together with the RH blood group positionnement on chromosome 1p.
Allele reduction involving chromosomes 3p and 6q as well as chromosomes 11p, 13q, and
18 have been usually observed in ovarian cancers. Besides allele reduction, point variations
have been identified in the tumor suppressor gene p53 situated on chromosome17p13.
Deletions of chromosome 17q have been reported in sporadic ovarian tumors suggesting
an over-all involvement of the region in ovarian tumour biology. Allelic loss of MYB and
ESR genes map on chromosome 6q nearby the provisional positionnement for FUCA2, the positionnement for
a-L-fucosidase in serum. Low activity of a-L-fucosidase in serum much more prevalent in
ovarian cancers patients. This suggests that lack of a-L-fucosidase activity in serum
may be a hereditary condition connected with increased exposure to possible developing ovarian
cancer. This kind of together with cytogenetic data of losses of 6q plus the allelic failures at 6q
point to the actual importance of chromosome 6q in hereditary ovarian cancer
Account activation of regular proto-oncogenes by either mutation, translocation, or gene
hyperbole to produce changed or overexpressed products can be believed to perform an
natural part in the progress ovarian tumors. Activation of several proto-
oncogenes (particularly K-RAS, H-RAS, c-MYC, and HER-2/neu) occurs in ovarian
tumors. Yet , the significance remains to be determined. It is questionable as to
whether overexpression in the HER-2/neu gene in ovarian cancer can be associated with poor
prognosis. Additionally to studying proto-oncogenes in tumors, it can be beneficial to
check out proto-oncogenes in germ-line DNA from associates of families with histories
of ovarian cancer (Barber, 323-324). It truly is questionable if inheritance or rare
alleles of the H-RAS proto-oncogene may be linked to susceptibility to ovarian cancer.
Diagnosis and Treatment
The early diagnosis of ovarian cancer is actually a matter of opportunity and not a triumph of
scientific procedure. In most cases, the finding of any pelvic mass is the only available
method of diagnosis, with the exception of operating tumors that might manifest
endocrine even with nominal ovarian enhancement. Symptomatology comes with vague
stomach discomfort, dyspepsia, increased unwanted gas, sense of bloating, particularly
after consuming food, gentle digestive disruptions, and pelvic unrest which might be present
for a few months before diagnosis (Sharp, 161-163).
There is a great number of imaging methods that are available. Ultrasounds
particularly penile ultrasound, has grown the rate of pick-up of early lesions
particularly when colour Doppler method is used. Regrettably, vaginal sonography
and LOS ANGELES 125 have had an increasing number of phony positive tests. Pelvic
findings are often nominal and not helpful in making an analysis. However , mixed
with a high index of suspicion, this may alert the physician for the diagnosis.
These types of pelvic indicators include:
Mass in the ovarian area
Comparative immobility due to fixation of adhesions
Anomaly of the tumor
Shotty consistency with increased stiffness
Tumors in the cul-de-sac referred to as a handful of knuckles
Relative insensitivity of the mass
Increasing size under remark
Bilaterality (70% for ovarian carcinoma vs 5% for benign cases) (Barber, 136)
Tumor indicators have been specifically useful in monitoring treatment, yet , the
markers have and will probably always have a drawback in determining an early
growth. To date, only two, man gonadotropin (HCG) and alpha fetoprotein, happen to be
known to be hypersensitive and certain. The problem with tumor indicators as a means of
making an analysis is that a tumor marker is produced from a particular volume of tumour.
By simply that time it is no longer a beginning but rather a biologically past due tumor (Altchek, 292).
Many studies have defined murine monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) as potential tools
pertaining to diagnosing cancerous ovarian tumors. Yamada ainsi que al attemptedto develop a MAb
that can identify cells with early cancerous change from adjacent benign tumor cells
in cases of borderline malignancy. They designed MAb 12C3 by immunizing mice with
a cell line based on a human ovarian tumor. The antibody reacted with human
ovarian carcinomas rather than with germ cellular tumors. MAb 12C3 discolored 67. seven percent of
ovarian epithelial malignancies, but exhibited an extremely low reactivity to
malignancies. MAb 12C3 diagnosed a new antigen in whose distribution in normal tissues is
restricted. According to Yamada ainsi que al, MAb 12C3 can serve as an excellent new application for
the histologic detection of early malignant within borderline epithelial neoplasms.
MAb 12C3 may also be valuable as a concentrating on agent to get cancer chemotherapy (Yamada
Currently there are several serum markers that are available to help make a diagnosis.
These include LOS ANGELES 125, CEA, DNB/70K, LASA-P, and serum inhibin. Recently the
urinary gonadotropin peptide (UCP) plus the collagen-stimulating component have been
added. Although the growth markers have a low specificity and level of sensitivity, they are often
utilized in screening for ovarian malignancy. A new tumour marker CA125-2 has higher
specificity than CA125. Generally speaking, tumor markers have a very limited role in screening
intended for ovarian cancers.
The normal epithelial tumor of the ovary is unique in killing the sufferer while getting
in the great majority of the instances, enclosed inside the anatomical region where it initially
created: the peritoneal cavity. Despite having early local cancer, lymph node
metastases are not rare in the pelvic or aortic areas. In most of the circumstances, death is a result of
intraperitoneal growth, ascites, proteins loss and cachexia. The concept of
debulking or perhaps cytoreductive medical procedures is currently the dominant strategy in treatment.
The initial goal in debulking surgical treatment is inhibited of debulking surgery is usually inhibition of
the vicious cycle of malnutrition, nausea, vomiting, and dyspepsia commonly found in
individuals with core to advanced stage disease. Cytoreductive surgical procedure enhances the
efficiency of chemotherapy as the survival shape of the people whose largest residual
mass size was, after surgical treatment, below the 1 ) 5 centimeter limit is the same as the competition of the
individuals whose largest metastatic lesions were below the 1 . a few cm limit at the outset
The aggressiveness of the debulking surgical treatment is a crucial question surgeons must face
when treating ovarian cancers. The debulking of substantial metastatic masses makes simply no
sense through the oncologic perspective. As for extrapelvic masses the debulking, regardless if
more appropriate, remains packed with danger and exposes the person to a weighty handicap.
For these reasons the extra-genital resections have to be restricted to lymphadenectomy
omentectomy, pelvic abs peritoneal resections and rectosigmoid junction
resection. That means that stages IIB and IIC and stages IIIA and IIB will be the only the case
indications intended for extrapelvic cytoreductive surgery. Colectomy, ileectomy, splenectomy
segmental hepatectomy are only exceedingly indicated if they let one to perform a
real optimum resection. The conventional cytoreductive medical procedures is the total hysterectomy with
bilateral salpingoophorectomy. This surgery may be carried out with aortic and pelvic lymph
node testing, omentectomy, and, if necessary, resection of the rectosigmoidal junction
The idea of administering drugs directly into the peritoneal tooth cavity as therapy of
ovarian cancer was attempted more than three decades ago. However , it has simply been
in the last ten years which a firm basis for this way of drug delivery has become
founded. The essential target is to show the growth to higher concentrations of medicine
for longer periods of time than may be possible with systemic drug delivery. Several providers
have been reviewed for their efficiency, safety and pharmacokinetic benefit when
given via the peritoneal route.
Cisplatin offers undergone one of the most extensive analysis for local delivery. Cisplatin
reaches the systemic area in significant concentrations when it is administered
intraperitoneally. The dosage limiting toxicity of intraperitoneally administered cisplatin is
nephrotoxicity, neurotoxicity and emesis. The depth of penetration of cisplatin in the
peritoneal coating and tumor following local delivery is merely 1 to 2 millimeter from the
surface area which limitations its effectiveness. Thus, the only patients with ovarian tumor who would
most likely benefit would be those with tiny residual growth volumes. Overall
approximately 35 to forty percent of individuals with small volume left over ovarian tumor have
been shown to demonstrate an objective clinical respond to cisplatin-based nearby
administered remedy with twenty to 30% of patients achieving a surgically recorded
complete response. As a general rule, sufferers whose tumors have demonstrated an
inherent resistance to cisplatin following systemic therapy are not regarded as for
treatment with platinum-based intraperitoneal remedy (Altchek, 444-446).
In people with little volume residual disease during the time of second seem laparotomy
who may have demonstrated natural resistance to platinum-based regimens, substitute
intraperitoneal treatment programs can be viewed as. Other real estate agents include
mitoxantrone, and recombinant alpha-interpheron. Intraperitoneal mitoxanthone features
been shown to acquire definite activity in little volume residual platinum-refractory ovarian
cancer. Unfortunately, the dose limiting degree of toxicity of the agent is stomach pain and
adhesion development, possibly bringing about bowel obstruction. Recent data suggests the
local degree of toxicity of mitoxanthone can be lowered considerably simply by delivering the agent in
Ovarian tumors may possess either intrinsic or obtained drug level of resistance. Many
mechanisms of medicine resistance have been described. Appearance of the MDR1 gene that
encodes the drug efflux protein known as p-glycoprotein, has been shown to confer the
feature multi-drug resistance from clones of some cancer. The most generally
considered definition of platinum response is response to first-line american platinum eagle treatment
and disease cost-free interval. Primary platinum level of resistance may be understood to be any progression
on treatment. Secondary platinum resistance is the absence of progression on main
platinum-based remedy but development at the time of platinum retreatment pertaining to relapse
Second-line chemotherapy to get recurrent ovarian cancer relies on tastes of
both the patient and physician. Retreatment with american platinum eagle therapy appears to offer
significant opportunity for specialized medical response and palliation yet relatively tiny hope for
long term cure. Paclitaxel (trade term: Taxol), a prototype with the taxanes, is cytotoxic
to ovarian cancer. Approximately twenty percent of american platinum eagle failures interact to standard amounts of
paclitaxel. Studies are in progress of dose rise and intraperitoneal
administration (Barber, 227-228). This class of drugs is now thought to represent an
active addition to the platinum eagle analogs, both as major therapy, along with
platinum, or perhaps as repair therapy after failure of platinum.
In advanced stages, there exists suggestive evidence of partial responsiveness of OCCA to
the radiation as well as cchemotherapy, adriamycin, cytoxan, and cisPlatinum-containing
combinations (Yoonessi, 295). Light techniques contain intraperitoneal radioactive
gold or chromium phosphate and exterior beam therapy to the stomach and pelvis. The
function of radiation therapy in remedying of ovarian canver has diminished in dominance as
the spread routine of ovarian cancer as well as the normal muscle bed involved in the treatment
with this neoplasm produce effective radiotherapy difficult. When the residual disease
after laparotomy is heavy, radiation therapy is specially ineffective. If perhaps postoperative
light is approved for a affected person, it is important that theentire abdomen and pelvis happen to be
optimally remedied to elicit a response through the tumor (Sharp, 278-280).
In the last few decades, the aggressive try to optimize the treatment of
ovarian clear cell adenocarcinoma and ovarian cancer generally has viewed remarkable
improvements in the response rates of patients with advanced level cancer with out
dramatically improving long-term survival. The promises of new medications with activity
when platinum agents fail is stimulating and fosters hope that, in the years to arrive
the undertakings of surgical and pharmacoogical research is likely to make ovarian cancers an
very easily treatable disease.
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